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Epidemiology of Mucormycosis in India

Medical Microbiology, Department of Public Health, International Higher School of Medicine, Issyk-Kul Regional Campus, Cholpon-Ata 722125, Kyrgyzstan
Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Edward Sionov
Microorganisms 2021, 9(3), 523;
Received: 28 January 2021 / Revised: 15 February 2021 / Accepted: 16 February 2021 / Published: 4 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Future Perspectives on Mucormycoses)
Mucormycosis is an angioinvasive disease caused by saprophytic fungi of the order Mucorales. The exact incidence of mucormycosis in India is unknown due to the lack of population-based studies. The estimated prevalence of mucormycosis is around 70 times higher in India than that in global data. Diabetes mellitus is the most common risk factor, followed by haematological malignancy and solid-organ transplant. Patients with postpulmonary tuberculosis and chronic kidney disease are at additional risk of developing mucormycosis in this country. Trauma is a risk factor for cutaneous mucormycosis. Isolated renal mucormycosis in an immunocompetent host is a unique entity in India. Though Rhizopus arrhizus is the most common etiological agent of mucormycosis in this country, infections due to Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizopus homothallicus, and Apophysomyces variabilis are rising. Occasionally, Saksenaea erythrospora, Mucor irregularis, and Thamnostylum lucknowense are isolated. Though awareness of the disease has increased among treating physicians, disease-associated morbidity and mortality are still high, as patients seek medical attention late in the disease process and given the low affordability for therapy. In conclusion, the rise in the number of cases, the emergence of new risk factors and causative agents, and the challenges in managing the disease are important concerns with mucormycosis in India. View Full-Text
Keywords: mucormycosis; incidence; diabetes mellitus; renal mucormycosis; Rhizopus homothallicus; amphotericin B mucormycosis; incidence; diabetes mellitus; renal mucormycosis; Rhizopus homothallicus; amphotericin B
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MDPI and ACS Style

Prakash, H.; Chakrabarti, A. Epidemiology of Mucormycosis in India. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 523.

AMA Style

Prakash H, Chakrabarti A. Epidemiology of Mucormycosis in India. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(3):523.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Prakash, Hariprasath, and Arunaloke Chakrabarti. 2021. "Epidemiology of Mucormycosis in India" Microorganisms 9, no. 3: 523.

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