Mucormycosis is an angioinvasive disease caused by saprophytic fungi of the order Mucorales. The exact incidence of mucormycosis in India is unknown due to the lack of population-based studies. The estimated prevalence of mucormycosis is around 70 times higher in India than that in global data. Diabetes mellitus is the most common risk factor, followed by haematological malignancy and solid-organ transplant. Patients with postpulmonary tuberculosis and chronic kidney disease are at additional risk of developing mucormycosis in this country. Trauma is a risk factor for cutaneous mucormycosis. Isolated renal mucormycosis in an immunocompetent host is a unique entity in India. Though Rhizopus arrhizus
is the most common etiological agent of mucormycosis in this country, infections due to Rhizopus microsporus
, Rhizopus homothallicus
, and Apophysomyces variabilis
are rising. Occasionally, Saksenaea erythrospora
, Mucor irregularis
, and Thamnostylum lucknowense
are isolated. Though awareness of the disease has increased among treating physicians, disease-associated morbidity and mortality are still high, as patients seek medical attention late in the disease process and given the low affordability for therapy. In conclusion, the rise in the number of cases, the emergence of new risk factors and causative agents, and the challenges in managing the disease are important concerns with mucormycosis in India.
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