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A Comprehensive Review of Detection Methods for SARS-CoV-2

Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh 5515878151, Iran
Dental and Periodontal Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 5166615731, Iran
Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia 571478334, Iran
Kidney Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 5166615731, Iran
Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 5166615731, Iran
Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnologies, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, 11 Izzat Nabiyev, Baku AZ 1073, Azerbaijan
Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Baku State University, Baku AZ 1148, Azerbaijan
Joint Ukraine-Azerbaijan International Research and Education Center of Nanobiotechnology and Functional Nanosystems, 82100 Drohobych, Ukraine
Center of Experimental Orthopaedics, Saarland University Medical Center, D-66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2021, 9(2), 232;
Received: 21 December 2020 / Revised: 11 January 2021 / Accepted: 16 January 2021 / Published: 22 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Focusing on Epidemiologic, Virologic, and Clinical Studies)
Recently, the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, in China and its subsequent spread across the world has caused numerous infections and deaths and disrupted normal social activity. Presently, various techniques are used for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with various advantages and weaknesses to each. In this paper, we summarize promising methods, such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), serological testing, point-of-care testing, smartphone surveillance of infectious diseases, nanotechnology-based approaches, biosensors, amplicon-based metagenomic sequencing, smartphone, and wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) that can also be utilized for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, we discuss principles, advantages, and disadvantages of these detection methods, and highlight the potential methods for the development of additional techniques and products for early and fast detection of SARS-CoV-2. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; detection; epidemic; nanotechnology COVID-19; coronavirus; detection; epidemic; nanotechnology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Eftekhari, A.; Alipour, M.; Chodari, L.; Maleki Dizaj, S.; Ardalan, M.; Samiei, M.; Sharifi, S.; Zununi Vahed, S.; Huseynova, I.; Khalilov, R.; Ahmadian, E.; Cucchiarini, M. A Comprehensive Review of Detection Methods for SARS-CoV-2. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 232.

AMA Style

Eftekhari A, Alipour M, Chodari L, Maleki Dizaj S, Ardalan M, Samiei M, Sharifi S, Zununi Vahed S, Huseynova I, Khalilov R, Ahmadian E, Cucchiarini M. A Comprehensive Review of Detection Methods for SARS-CoV-2. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(2):232.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Eftekhari, Aziz, Mahdieh Alipour, Leila Chodari, Solmaz Maleki Dizaj, Mohammadreza Ardalan, Mohammad Samiei, Simin Sharifi, Sepideh Zununi Vahed, Irada Huseynova, Rovshan Khalilov, Elham Ahmadian, and Magali Cucchiarini. 2021. "A Comprehensive Review of Detection Methods for SARS-CoV-2" Microorganisms 9, no. 2: 232.

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