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Open AccessArticle

The Oral Bacterial Community in Melanophryniscus admirabilis (Admirable Red-Belly Toads): Implications for Conservation

1
Post-Graduation Program in Agricole and Environmental Microbiology, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 90050-170, Brazil
2
Department of Health Sciences, Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre 90050-170, Brazil
3
Biosciences Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 91509-900, Brazil
4
Post-Graduation Program in Animal Biology, Department of Zoology, Biosciences Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 91509-900, Brazil
5
Research and Innovation Centre, The Institute Agrario di San Michele all’Adige, Fondazione Edmund Mach, 1 38010 San Michele all’Adige, Italy
6
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Microorganisms Laboratory, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 91509-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kazunari Ushida
Microorganisms 2021, 9(2), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020220
Received: 21 December 2020 / Revised: 11 January 2021 / Accepted: 18 January 2021 / Published: 22 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wildlife Microbiology 2.0)
Melanophryniscus admirabilis (admirable red-belly toad) is a microendemic and critically endangered species found exclusively along 700 m of the Forqueta River, in a fragment of the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. One of the greatest concerns regarding the conservation of this species is the extensive use of pesticides in areas surrounding their natural habitat. In recent years, the adaptation and persistence of animal species in human-impacted environments have been associated with microbiota. Therefore, the present study aimed to characterize the oral bacterial community of wild M. admirabilis and to address the question of how this community might contribute to this toad’s adaptation in the anthropogenic environment as well as its general metabolic capabilities. A total of 11 oral samples collected from wild M. admirabilis were characterized and analyzed via high-throughput sequencing. Fragments of the 16S rRNA variable region 4 (V4) were amplified, and sequencing was conducted using an Ion Personal Genome Machine (PGM) System with 316 chips. A total of 181,350 sequences were obtained, resulting in 16 phyla, 34 classes, 39 orders, and 77 families. Proteobacteria dominated (53%) the oral microbiota of toads, followed by Firmicutes (18%), Bacteroidetes (17%), and Actinobacteria (5%). No significant differences in microbial community profile from among the samples were reported, which suggests that the low dietary diversity observed in this population may directly influence the bacterial composition. Inferences of microbiome function were performed using PICRUSt2 software. Important pathways (e.g., xenobiotic degradation pathways for pesticides and aromatic phenolic compounds) were detected, which suggests that the bacterial communities may serve important roles in M. admirabilis health and survival in the anthropogenic environment. Overall, our results have important implications for the conservation and management of this microendemic and critically endangered species. View Full-Text
Keywords: high-throughput sequencing; amphibian; bacteria; xenobiotic; anthropogenic action high-throughput sequencing; amphibian; bacteria; xenobiotic; anthropogenic action
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mann, M.B.; Prichula, J.; de Castro, Í.M.S.; Severo, J.M.; Abadie, M.; De Freitas Lima, T.M.; Caorsi, V.; Borges-Martins, M.; Frazzon, J.; Frazzon, A.P.G. The Oral Bacterial Community in Melanophryniscus admirabilis (Admirable Red-Belly Toads): Implications for Conservation. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 220. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020220

AMA Style

Mann MB, Prichula J, de Castro ÍMS, Severo JM, Abadie M, De Freitas Lima TM, Caorsi V, Borges-Martins M, Frazzon J, Frazzon APG. The Oral Bacterial Community in Melanophryniscus admirabilis (Admirable Red-Belly Toads): Implications for Conservation. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(2):220. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020220

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mann, Michele B.; Prichula, Janira; de Castro, Ícaro M.S.; Severo, Juliana M.; Abadie, Michelle; De Freitas Lima, Thayná M.; Caorsi, Valentina; Borges-Martins, Márcio; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana P.G. 2021. "The Oral Bacterial Community in Melanophryniscus admirabilis (Admirable Red-Belly Toads): Implications for Conservation" Microorganisms 9, no. 2: 220. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020220

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