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An Overview of Helicobacter pylori Survival Tactics in the Hostile Human Stomach Environment

1
Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2
School of Biosciences, Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia
3
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vincenzo Scarlato
Microorganisms 2021, 9(12), 2502; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9122502
Received: 14 November 2021 / Revised: 28 November 2021 / Accepted: 29 November 2021 / Published: 3 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Microbiology)
Helicobacter pylori is well established as a causative agent for gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Armed with various inimitable virulence factors, this Gram-negative bacterium is one of few microorganisms that is capable of circumventing the harsh environment of the stomach. The unique spiral structure, flagella, and outer membrane proteins accelerate H. pylori movement within the viscous gastric mucosal layers while facilitating its attachment to the epithelial cells. Furthermore, secretion of urease from H. pylori eases the acidic pH within the stomach, thus creating a niche for bacteria survival and replication. Upon gaining a foothold in the gastric epithelial lining, bacterial protein CagA is injected into host cells through a type IV secretion system (T4SS), which together with VacA, damage the gastric epithelial cells. H. pylori does not only establishes colonization in the stomach, but also manipulates the host immune system to permit long-term persistence. Prolonged H. pylori infection causes chronic inflammation that precedes gastric cancer. The current review provides a brief outlook on H. pylori survival tactics, bacterial-host interaction and their importance in therapeutic intervention as well as vaccine development. View Full-Text
Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; flagella; outer membrane protein; CagA; VacA; type IV secretion system; pathogenesis Helicobacter pylori; flagella; outer membrane protein; CagA; VacA; type IV secretion system; pathogenesis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cheok, Y.Y.; Lee, C.Y.Q.; Cheong, H.C.; Vadivelu, J.; Looi, C.Y.; Abdullah, S.; Wong, W.F. An Overview of Helicobacter pylori Survival Tactics in the Hostile Human Stomach Environment. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 2502. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9122502

AMA Style

Cheok YY, Lee CYQ, Cheong HC, Vadivelu J, Looi CY, Abdullah S, Wong WF. An Overview of Helicobacter pylori Survival Tactics in the Hostile Human Stomach Environment. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(12):2502. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9122502

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cheok, Yi Y., Chalystha Y.Q. Lee, Heng C. Cheong, Jamuna Vadivelu, Chung Y. Looi, Suhailah Abdullah, and Won F. Wong. 2021. "An Overview of Helicobacter pylori Survival Tactics in the Hostile Human Stomach Environment" Microorganisms 9, no. 12: 2502. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9122502

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