Next Article in Journal
Oral Pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis Can Escape Phagocytosis of Mammalian Macrophages
Next Article in Special Issue
Fungicide Resistance Evolution and Detection in Plant Pathogens: Plasmopara viticola as a Case Study
Previous Article in Journal
Viral Abundance and Diversity of Production Fluids in Oil Reservoirs
Review

Fungicide Resistance in Powdery Mildew Fungi

1
Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain
2
Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Mediterranea “La Mayora”, Departamento de Microbiología, Campus de Teatinos, Universidad de Málaga—Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IHSM-UMA-CSIC), 29071 Málaga, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(9), 1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091431
Received: 11 August 2020 / Revised: 7 September 2020 / Accepted: 14 September 2020 / Published: 17 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungicide Resistance in Plant Pathogens)
Powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphales) are among the most common and important plant fungal pathogens. These fungi are obligate biotrophic parasites that attack nearly 10,000 species of angiosperms, including major crops, such as cereals and grapes. Although cultural and biological practices may reduce the risk of infection by powdery mildew, they do not provide sufficient protection. Therefore, in practice, chemical control, including the use of fungicides from multiple chemical groups, is the most effective tool for managing powdery mildew. Unfortunately, the risk of resistance development is high because typical spray programs include multiple applications per season. In addition, some of the most economically destructive species of powdery mildew fungi are considered to be high-risk pathogens and are able to develop resistance to several chemical classes within a few years. This situation has decreased the efficacy of the major fungicide classes, such as sterol demethylation inhibitors, quinone outside inhibitors and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors, that are employed against powdery mildews. In this review, we present cases of reduction in sensitivity, development of resistance and failure of control by fungicides that have been or are being used to manage powdery mildew. In addition, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to fungicides are also outlined. Finally, a number of recommendations are provided to decrease the probability of resistance development when fungicides are employed. View Full-Text
Keywords: cross-resistance; disease control; fitness cost; fungicide resistance; molecular mechanisms of fungicide resistance; powdery mildews; resistance development; resistance management cross-resistance; disease control; fitness cost; fungicide resistance; molecular mechanisms of fungicide resistance; powdery mildews; resistance development; resistance management
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Vielba-Fernández, A.; Polonio, Á.; Ruiz-Jiménez, L.; de Vicente, A.; Pérez-García, A.; Fernández-Ortuño, D. Fungicide Resistance in Powdery Mildew Fungi. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1431. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091431

AMA Style

Vielba-Fernández A, Polonio Á, Ruiz-Jiménez L, de Vicente A, Pérez-García A, Fernández-Ortuño D. Fungicide Resistance in Powdery Mildew Fungi. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(9):1431. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091431

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vielba-Fernández, Alejandra, Álvaro Polonio, Laura Ruiz-Jiménez, Antonio de Vicente, Alejandro Pérez-García, and Dolores Fernández-Ortuño. 2020. "Fungicide Resistance in Powdery Mildew Fungi" Microorganisms 8, no. 9: 1431. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091431

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop