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Open AccessArticle

Diversity, Antibiotic Resistance, and Biofilm-Forming Ability of Enterobacteria Isolated from Red Meat and Poultry Preparations

1
Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, Veterinary Faculty, University of León, E-24071 León, Spain
2
Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of León, E-24071 León, Spain
3
Associated Laboratory for Green Chemistry, University NOVA of Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
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Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5000-811 Vila Real, Portugal
5
Functional Genomics and Proteomics Unit, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5000-811 Vila Real, Portugal
6
Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5000-811 Vila Real, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(8), 1226; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8081226
Received: 3 July 2020 / Revised: 28 July 2020 / Accepted: 31 July 2020 / Published: 12 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
A total of 44 samples of beef, pork, and poultry preparations were tested. Average counts (log cfu/g) of enterobacteria were 1.99 ± 0.99 (beef preparations), 1.96 ± 1.44 (pork), 2.09 ± 0.92 (chicken), and 2.17 ± 1.06 (turkey) (p > 0.05). Two hundred enterobacterial strains were identified and 13 genera (21 species) were distinguished, including species that are a significant cause of infection. The most common genera were Escherichia (32.5% of strains), Serratia (17.0%), Hafnia (12.5%), and Salmonella (12.0%). Isolates were screened by disc diffusion for susceptibility to 15 antibiotics. A total of 126 strains (63% of the isolates) were multirresistant (having resistance to two or more antibiotics), 46 (23%) were resistant to one antibiotic, and 28 (14%) were sensitive to all antibiotics. The average number of resistances per strain was 2.53 ± 2.05. A higher (p < 0.05) average number of resistances was observed in strains from turkey (3.14 ± 2.55) than in strains from beef (2.15 ± 1.22), pork (2.16 ± 1.39), or chicken (2.44 ± 2.22). At least 50% of strains showed resistance or reduced susceptibility to ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, or streptomycin, considered to be “critically important” antimicrobial agents in human medicine. Seventy-nine strains (39.5%), 60 strains (30.0%), and 46 strains (23.0%) were weak, moderate, and strong biofilm producers (crystal violet assay), respectively. This investigation provides evidence that bacteria from red meat and poultry preparations pose major potential risk to consumers. View Full-Text
Keywords: meat preparations; enterobacterial species; antibiotic resistance; biofilm-forming ability meat preparations; enterobacterial species; antibiotic resistance; biofilm-forming ability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Capita, R.; Castaño-Arriba, A.; Rodríguez-Melcón, C.; Igrejas, G.; Poeta, P.; Alonso-Calleja, C. Diversity, Antibiotic Resistance, and Biofilm-Forming Ability of Enterobacteria Isolated from Red Meat and Poultry Preparations. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1226.

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