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Review

Gut Microbiota during Dietary Restrictions: New Insights in Non-Communicable Diseases

1
UOC di Nutrizione Clinica, Dipartimento di Scienze mediche e chirurgiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
2
Scuola di Specializzazione in Scienza dell’Alimentazione, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
3
UOSD di Nutrizione Avanzata in Oncologia, Dipartimento di Scienze mediche e chirurgiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
4
UOC di Medicina Interna e Gastroenterologia, Dipartimento di Scienze mediche e chirurgiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
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Department of Medicine and Ageing Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery,“G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti, Italy
6
Center for Advanced Studies and Technology (CAST), “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti, Italy
7
Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia traslazionale, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore, Largo F. Vito 1, 00168 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(8), 1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8081140
Received: 3 July 2020 / Revised: 23 July 2020 / Accepted: 24 July 2020 / Published: 28 July 2020
In recent decades, there has been a growing interest in dietary restrictions for their promising effects on longevity and health span. Indeed, these strategies are supposed to delay the onset and burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as obesity, diabetes, cancer and neurological and gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases. At the same time, the gut microbiota has been shown to play a crucial role in NCDs since it is actively involved in maintaining gut homeostasis through its impact on nutrients metabolism, gut barrier, and immune system. There is evidence that dietary restrictions could slow down age-related changes in the types and numbers of gut bacteria, which may counteract gut dysbiosis. The beneficial effects on gut microbiota may positively influence host metabolism, gut barrier permeability, and brain functions, and subsequently, postpone the onset of NCDs prolonging the health span. These new insights could lead to the development of novel strategies for modulating gut microbiota with the end goal of treating/preventing NCDs. This review provides an overview of animal and human studies focusing on gut microbiota variations during different types of dietary restriction, in order to highlight the close relationship between gut microbiota balance and the host’s health benefits induced by these nutritional regimens. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; caloric restriction; intermittent fasting; fasting-mimicking diet; non-communicable diseases; aging gut microbiota; caloric restriction; intermittent fasting; fasting-mimicking diet; non-communicable diseases; aging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rinninella, E.; Cintoni, M.; Raoul, P.; Ianiro, G.; Laterza, L.; Lopetuso, L.R.; Ponziani, F.R.; Gasbarrini, A.; Mele, M.C. Gut Microbiota during Dietary Restrictions: New Insights in Non-Communicable Diseases. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1140. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8081140

AMA Style

Rinninella E, Cintoni M, Raoul P, Ianiro G, Laterza L, Lopetuso LR, Ponziani FR, Gasbarrini A, Mele MC. Gut Microbiota during Dietary Restrictions: New Insights in Non-Communicable Diseases. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(8):1140. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8081140

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rinninella, Emanuele, Marco Cintoni, Pauline Raoul, Gianluca Ianiro, Lucrezia Laterza, Loris R. Lopetuso, Francesca R. Ponziani, Antonio Gasbarrini, and Maria C. Mele 2020. "Gut Microbiota during Dietary Restrictions: New Insights in Non-Communicable Diseases" Microorganisms 8, no. 8: 1140. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8081140

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