Next Article in Journal
Biodiversity of Algae and Cyanobacteria in Biological Soil Crusts Collected Along a Climatic Gradient in Chile Using an Integrative Approach
Next Article in Special Issue
Candida albicans Virulence Factors and Pathogenicity for Endodontic Infections
Previous Article in Journal
Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the bZIP Transcription Factors in the Mycoparasite Coniothyrium minitans
Previous Article in Special Issue
Bio- and Nanotechnology as the Key for Clinical Application of Salivary Peptide Histatin: A Necessary Advance
Review

Moonlighting Proteins at the Candidal Cell Surface

1
Department of Analytical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow, Poland
2
Department of Comparative Biochemistry and Bioanalytics, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(7), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071046
Received: 30 June 2020 / Revised: 11 July 2020 / Accepted: 12 July 2020 / Published: 14 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Candida albicans Virulence Factors and Its Pathogenecity)
The cell wall in Candida albicans is not only a tight protective envelope but also a point of contact with the human host that provides a dynamic response to the constantly changing environment in infection niches. Particularly important roles are attributed to proteins exposed at the fungal cell surface. These include proteins that are stably and covalently bound to the cell wall or cell membrane and those that are more loosely attached. Interestingly in this regard, numerous loosely attached proteins belong to the class of “moonlighting proteins” that are originally intracellular and that perform essentially different functions in addition to their primary housekeeping roles. These proteins also demonstrate unpredicted interactions with non-canonical partners at an a priori unexpected extracellular location, achieved via non-classical secretion routes. Acting both individually and collectively, the moonlighting proteins contribute to candidal virulence and pathogenicity through their involvement in mechanisms critical for successful host colonization and infection, such as the adhesion to host cells, interactions with plasma homeostatic proteolytic cascades, responses to stress conditions and molecular mimicry. The documented knowledge of the roles of these proteins in C. albicans pathogenicity has utility for assisting the design of new therapeutic, diagnostic and preventive strategies against candidiasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida yeast; cell wall; protein moonlighting; non-classical secretion; adhesion; plasminogen; complement system; contact system; stress protection; molecular mimicry; enolase; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Candida yeast; cell wall; protein moonlighting; non-classical secretion; adhesion; plasminogen; complement system; contact system; stress protection; molecular mimicry; enolase; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Satala, D.; Karkowska-Kuleta, J.; Zelazna, A.; Rapala-Kozik, M.; Kozik, A. Moonlighting Proteins at the Candidal Cell Surface. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1046. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071046

AMA Style

Satala D, Karkowska-Kuleta J, Zelazna A, Rapala-Kozik M, Kozik A. Moonlighting Proteins at the Candidal Cell Surface. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(7):1046. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071046

Chicago/Turabian Style

Satala, Dorota, Justyna Karkowska-Kuleta, Aleksandra Zelazna, Maria Rapala-Kozik, and Andrzej Kozik. 2020. "Moonlighting Proteins at the Candidal Cell Surface" Microorganisms 8, no. 7: 1046. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071046

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop