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Article

Composted Sewage Sludge Influences the Microbiome and Persistence of Human Pathogens in Soil

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Institute of Agriculture and Tourism, Karla Huguesa 8, 52440 Poreč, Croatia
2
Leibniz Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops, Department Plant-Microbe Systems, Theodor-Echtermeyer-Weg 1, 14979 Großbeeren, Germany
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Institute for Phytopathology, Centre for BioSystems, Land Use and Nutrition, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, 35392 Giessen, Germany
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Section of Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
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Julius Kühn-Institut, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics, Messeweg 11/12, 38104 Braunschweig, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(7), 1020; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071020
Received: 26 May 2020 / Revised: 6 July 2020 / Accepted: 7 July 2020 / Published: 9 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Pathogens in Primary Production Systems)
Composted sewage sludge (CSS) gained attention as a potential fertilizer in agriculture. Application of CSS increases soil microbial activity and microbial biomass, however, it can also lead to increased chemical and microbiological risks. In this study, we performed microcosm experiments to assess how CSS reshapes the microbial community of diluvial sand (DS) soil. Further, we assessed the potential of CSS to increase the persistence of human pathogens in DS soil and the colonization of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis (Lour.) Hanelt). The results revealed that CSS substantially altered the prokaryotic community composition. Moreover, addition of CSS increased the persistence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 14028s and S. enterica serovar Senftenberg in DS soil. However, the enhanced persistence in soil had no impact on the colonization rate of B. rapa grown on soil inoculated with Salmonella. We detected Salmonella in leaves of 1.9% to 3.6% of plants. Addition of CSS had no impact on the plant colonization rate. The use of sewage sludge composts is an interesting option. However, safety measures should be applied in order to avoid contamination of crop plants by human pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil microbiome; sewage sludge compost; Salmonella enterica; internalization; Brassica rapa soil microbiome; sewage sludge compost; Salmonella enterica; internalization; Brassica rapa
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MDPI and ACS Style

Major, N.; Schierstaedt, J.; Jechalke, S.; Nesme, J.; Ban, S.G.; Černe, M.; Sørensen, S.J.; Ban, D.; Schikora, A. Composted Sewage Sludge Influences the Microbiome and Persistence of Human Pathogens in Soil. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1020. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071020

AMA Style

Major N, Schierstaedt J, Jechalke S, Nesme J, Ban SG, Černe M, Sørensen SJ, Ban D, Schikora A. Composted Sewage Sludge Influences the Microbiome and Persistence of Human Pathogens in Soil. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(7):1020. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071020

Chicago/Turabian Style

Major, Nikola, Jasper Schierstaedt, Sven Jechalke, Joseph Nesme, Smiljana G. Ban, Marko Černe, Søren J. Sørensen, Dean Ban, and Adam Schikora. 2020. "Composted Sewage Sludge Influences the Microbiome and Persistence of Human Pathogens in Soil" Microorganisms 8, no. 7: 1020. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071020

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