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Article

Thymol and Carvacrol Downregulate the Expression of Salmonella typhimurium Virulence Genes during an In Vitro Infection on Caco-2 Cells

1
DIMEVET, Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche Veterinarie, Università di Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano dell’Emilia (BO), Italy
2
Vetagro S.p.A., via Porro 2, 42124 Reggio Emilia, Italy
3
Vetagro Inc., 116 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite #320, Chicago, IL 60604, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(6), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060862
Received: 20 May 2020 / Revised: 4 June 2020 / Accepted: 6 June 2020 / Published: 7 June 2020
Salmonella typhimurium is one of the major bacteria responsible for gastroenteritis in humans caused by foodborne pathogens. As pork is one of the main routes of transmission, bioactive compounds used as feed additives may be an important strategy to control Salmonella typhimurium. The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of several organic acids and nature identical compounds against Salmonella typhimurium ATCC®® 6994™. Moreover, the effect of sub-lethal concentrations of thymol and carvacrol in counteracting a Salmonella typhimurium in vitro infection on Caco-2 cells was evaluated, focusing on the maintenance of the epithelial barrier and the alteration of Salmonella virulence genes. The results showed a protective effect of the compounds on the integrity of the intestinal monolayer, improving transepithelial electrical resistance and bacterial translocation compared to the non-treated cells. A real-time PCR study highlighted a significant downregulation of the main virulence genes of Salmonella (hilA, prgH, invA, sipA, sipC, sipD, sopB, sopE2). These findings indicate that thymol and carvacrol could be good candidates for the control of Salmonella typhimurium in pigs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella typhimurium; tight junctions; epithelial barrier; virulence genes; nature identical compounds; thymol; carvacrol; antimicrobial activity; feed additives Salmonella typhimurium; tight junctions; epithelial barrier; virulence genes; nature identical compounds; thymol; carvacrol; antimicrobial activity; feed additives
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MDPI and ACS Style

Giovagnoni, G.; Rossi, B.; Tugnoli, B.; Ghiselli, F.; Bonetti, A.; Piva, A.; Grilli, E. Thymol and Carvacrol Downregulate the Expression of Salmonella typhimurium Virulence Genes during an In Vitro Infection on Caco-2 Cells. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 862. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060862

AMA Style

Giovagnoni G, Rossi B, Tugnoli B, Ghiselli F, Bonetti A, Piva A, Grilli E. Thymol and Carvacrol Downregulate the Expression of Salmonella typhimurium Virulence Genes during an In Vitro Infection on Caco-2 Cells. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(6):862. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060862

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giovagnoni, Giulia, Barbara Rossi, Benedetta Tugnoli, Federico Ghiselli, Andrea Bonetti, Andrea Piva, and Ester Grilli. 2020. "Thymol and Carvacrol Downregulate the Expression of Salmonella typhimurium Virulence Genes during an In Vitro Infection on Caco-2 Cells" Microorganisms 8, no. 6: 862. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060862

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