Next Article in Journal
Metagenomic Analysis of Regularly Microwave-Treated and Untreated Domestic Kitchen Sponges
Previous Article in Journal
Each Mycobacterium Requires a Specific Culture Medium Composition for Triggering an Optimized Immunomodulatory and Antitumoral Effect
Open AccessArticle

Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Evokes Differential Inflammatory Responses in Human Microglial and Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

1
Jhaveri Microbiology Centre, Brien Holden Eye Research Centre, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana 500034, India
2
Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka 576104, India
3
Department of Ophthalmology, Visual and Anatomical Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, MI 48201, USA
4
Kallam Anji Reddy Molecular Genetics laboratory, Jhaveri Microbiology Centre, Brien Holden Eye Research Centre, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana 500034, India
5
Smt. Kannuri Santhamma Centre for vitreoretinal diseases. L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana 500034, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(5), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050735
Received: 19 April 2020 / Revised: 9 May 2020 / Accepted: 12 May 2020 / Published: 14 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance)
Increasing incidences of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens causing endophthalmitis threaten our ability to treat this condition, and the modulation of inflammatory responses by MDR bacteria is not known. In this study, using human microglia and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, we compare the inflammatory responses of sensitive (S-PA) and multidrug-resistant (MDR-PA) clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infected cells were subjected to qPCR analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunostaining to assess the expression of inflammatory mediators. Both microglia and RPE cells, challenged with S-PA and MDR-PA, induced a time-dependent expression of inflammatory cytokines. Significant differences were observed in expression levels of Toll-like receptors (TLR) TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9 in microglia cells challenged with MDR-PA vs. S-PA. Similarly, mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Interferon (IFN)-γ, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were also higher in MDR-PA-infected cells. At protein levels, upregulation was observed for IL-10 (p = 0.004), IL-8 (p = 0.0006), IL-1β (p = 0.02), and Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (p = 0.0006) in cells infected MDR-PA versus S-PA in both microglia and RPE cells; however, the response was delayed in RPE cells. Heatmap and STRING analysis highlighted the existence of a cross-talk between the inflammatory and cytokine-mediated signaling pathways. Our study highlights a differential inflammatory response evoked by MDR vs. sensitive pathogens in retinal cells during endophthalmitis. View Full-Text
Keywords: microglia; RPE; P. aeruginosa; endophthalmitis; innate immune response microglia; RPE; P. aeruginosa; endophthalmitis; innate immune response
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Naik, P.; Singh, S.; Vishwakarma, S.; Kaur, I.; Dave, V.P.; Kumar, A.; Joseph, J. Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Evokes Differential Inflammatory Responses in Human Microglial and Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 735.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop