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Open AccessArticle

Diversity of Bacterial Biosynthetic Genes in Maritime Antarctica

1
Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR), University of Porto, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
2
Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar (ICBAS), University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
3
Institute F.-A. Forel, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Geneva, 66, Boulevard Carl-Vogt, 1211 Genève 4, Switzerland
4
Centro de Química Estrutural at Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
5
Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, 4150-179 Porto, Portugal
6
School of Science, University of Waikato, Hamilton 3216, New Zealand
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(2), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020279
Received: 24 January 2020 / Revised: 14 February 2020 / Accepted: 14 February 2020 / Published: 18 February 2020
Bacterial natural products (NPs) are still a major source of new drug leads. Polyketides (PKs) and non-ribosomal peptides (NRP) are two pharmaceutically important families of NPs and recent studies have revealed Antarctica to harbor endemic polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes, likely to be involved in the production of novel metabolites. Despite this, the diversity of secondary metabolites genes in Antarctica is still poorly explored. In this study, a computational bioprospection approach was employed to study the diversity and identity of PKS and NRPS genes to one of the most biodiverse areas in maritime Antarctica—Maxwell Bay. Amplicon sequencing of soil samples targeting ketosynthase (KS) and adenylation (AD) domains of PKS and NRPS genes, respectively, revealed abundant and unexplored chemical diversity in this peninsula. About 20% of AD domain sequences were only distantly related to characterized biosynthetic genes. Several PKS and NRPS genes were found to be closely associated to recently described metabolites including those from uncultured and candidate phyla. The combination of new approaches in computational biology and new culture-dependent and -independent strategies is thus critical for the recovery of the potential novel chemistry encoded in Antarctica microorganisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: Antarctica; polyketides (PKs); non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs); biosynthetic genes; computational bioprospection; ketosynthase (KS); adenylation (AD); natural products (NPs) Antarctica; polyketides (PKs); non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs); biosynthetic genes; computational bioprospection; ketosynthase (KS); adenylation (AD); natural products (NPs)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rego, A.; Sousa, A.G.G.; Santos, J.P.; Pascoal, F.; Canário, J.; Leão, P.N.; Magalhães, C. Diversity of Bacterial Biosynthetic Genes in Maritime Antarctica. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 279. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020279

AMA Style

Rego A, Sousa AGG, Santos JP, Pascoal F, Canário J, Leão PN, Magalhães C. Diversity of Bacterial Biosynthetic Genes in Maritime Antarctica. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(2):279. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020279

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rego, Adriana; Sousa, António G.G.; Santos, João P.; Pascoal, Francisco; Canário, João; Leão, Pedro N.; Magalhães, Catarina. 2020. "Diversity of Bacterial Biosynthetic Genes in Maritime Antarctica" Microorganisms 8, no. 2: 279. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020279

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