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Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: An Immunological Perspective

Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Department for Genomics & Immunoregulation, Life and Medical Sciences Institute (LIMES), University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(2), 144;
Received: 19 December 2019 / Revised: 14 January 2020 / Accepted: 17 January 2020 / Published: 21 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Candida albicans Virulence Factors and Its Pathogenecity)
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a widespread vaginal infection primarily caused by Candida albicans. VVC affects up to 75% of women of childbearing age once in their life, and up to 9% of women in different populations experience more than three episodes per year, which is defined as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). RVVC results in diminished quality of life as well as increased associated healthcare costs. For a long time, VVC has been considered the outcome of inadequate host defenses against Candida colonization, as in the case of primary immunodeficiencies associated with persistent fungal infections and insufficient clearance. Intensive research in recent decades has led to a new hypothesis that points toward a local mucosal overreaction of the immune system rather than a defective host response to Candida colonization. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of the host immune response in VVC pathogenesis and suggests that a tightly regulated fungus–host–microbiota interplay might exert a protective role against recurrent Candida infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: vulvovaginal candidiasis; recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis; Candida albicans; host immune response; immunity; fungal infections vulvovaginal candidiasis; recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis; Candida albicans; host immune response; immunity; fungal infections
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rosati, D.; Bruno, M.; Jaeger, M.; ten Oever, J.; Netea, M.G. Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: An Immunological Perspective. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 144.

AMA Style

Rosati D, Bruno M, Jaeger M, ten Oever J, Netea MG. Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: An Immunological Perspective. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(2):144.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rosati, Diletta, Mariolina Bruno, Martin Jaeger, Jaap ten Oever, and Mihai G. Netea. 2020. "Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: An Immunological Perspective" Microorganisms 8, no. 2: 144.

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