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Presence of Infection by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the Blood of Patients with Crohn’s Disease and Control Subjects Shown by Multiple Laboratory Culture and Antibody Methods

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Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
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Center for Substance Abuse, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
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Institute for Infection & Immunity, St. George’s, University of London, London SW17 0RE, UK
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Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University, Belfast BT9 5DL, UK
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Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
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Division of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6H 3Z6, Canada
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PZM Diagnostics, Charleston, WV 25301, USA
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Department of Clinical Sciences, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
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Shafran Gastroenterology Center, Winter Park, FL 32789, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(12), 2054; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8122054
Received: 23 November 2020 / Revised: 8 December 2020 / Accepted: 17 December 2020 / Published: 21 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Microbiology)
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has long been suspected to be involved in the etiology of Crohn’s disease (CD). An obligate intracellular pathogen, MAP persists and influences host macrophages. The primary goals of this study were to test new rapid culture methods for MAP in human subjects and to assess the degree of viable culturable MAP bacteremia in CD patients compared to controls. A secondary goal was to compare the efficacy of three culture methods plus a phage assay and four antibody assays performed in separate laboratories, to detect MAP from the parallel samples. Culture and serological MAP testing was performed blind on whole blood samples obtained from 201 subjects including 61 CD patients (two of the patients with CD had concurrent ulcerative colitis (UC)) and 140 non-CD controls (14 patients in this group had UC only). Viable MAP bacteremia was detected in a significant number of study subjects across all groups. This included Pozzato culture (124/201 or 62% of all subjects, 35/61 or 57% of CD patients), Phage assay (113/201 or 56% of all subjects, 28/61 or 46% of CD patients), TiKa culture (64/201 or 32% of all subjects, 22/61 or 36% of CD patients) and MGIT culture (36/201 or 18% of all subjects, 15/61 or 25% of CD patients). A link between MAP detection and CD was observed with MGIT culture and one of the antibody methods (Hsp65) confirming previous studies. Other detection methods showed no association between any of the groups tested. Nine subjects with a positive Phage assay (4/9) or MAP culture (5/9) were again positive with the Phage assay one year later. This study highlights viable MAP bacteremia is widespread in the study population including CD patients, those with other autoimmune conditions and asymptomatic healthy subjects. View Full-Text
Keywords: MAP; Crohn’s Disease; bacteremia; IBD; autoimmune disease MAP; Crohn’s Disease; bacteremia; IBD; autoimmune disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kuenstner, J.T.; Potula, R.; Bull, T.J.; Grant, I.R.; Foddai, A.; Naser, S.A.; Bach, H.; Zhang, P.; Yu, D.; Lu, X.; Shafran, I. Presence of Infection by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the Blood of Patients with Crohn’s Disease and Control Subjects Shown by Multiple Laboratory Culture and Antibody Methods. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 2054. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8122054

AMA Style

Kuenstner JT, Potula R, Bull TJ, Grant IR, Foddai A, Naser SA, Bach H, Zhang P, Yu D, Lu X, Shafran I. Presence of Infection by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the Blood of Patients with Crohn’s Disease and Control Subjects Shown by Multiple Laboratory Culture and Antibody Methods. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(12):2054. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8122054

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kuenstner, J. T., Raghava Potula, Tim J. Bull, Irene R. Grant, Antonio Foddai, Saleh A. Naser, Horacio Bach, Peilin Zhang, Daohai Yu, Xiaoning Lu, and Ira Shafran. 2020. "Presence of Infection by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the Blood of Patients with Crohn’s Disease and Control Subjects Shown by Multiple Laboratory Culture and Antibody Methods" Microorganisms 8, no. 12: 2054. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8122054

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