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The T3SS of Shigella: Expression, Structure, Function, and Role in Vacuole Escape

1
Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
2
Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(12), 1933; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121933
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 1 December 2020 / Accepted: 3 December 2020 / Published: 5 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Type III Secretion Systems in Human/Animal Pathogenic Bacteria)
Shigella spp. are one of the leading causes of infectious diarrheal diseases. They are Escherichia coli pathovars that are characterized by the harboring of a large plasmid that encodes most virulence genes, including a type III secretion system (T3SS). The archetypal element of the T3SS is the injectisome, a syringe-like nanomachine composed of approximately 20 proteins, spanning both bacterial membranes and the cell wall, and topped with a needle. Upon contact of the tip of the needle with the plasma membrane, the injectisome secretes its protein substrates into host cells. Some of these substrates act as translocators or effectors whose functions are key to the invasion of the cytosol and the cell-to-cell spread characterizing the lifestyle of Shigella spp. Here, we review the structure, assembly, function, and methods to measure the activity of the injectisome with a focus on Shigella, but complemented with data from other T3SS if required. We also present the regulatory cascade that controls the expression of T3SS genes in Shigella. Finally, we describe the function of translocators and effectors during cell-to-cell spread, particularly during escape from the vacuole, a key element of Shigella’s pathogenesis that has yet to reveal all of its secrets. View Full-Text
Keywords: Shigella; type III secretion system (T3SS); injectisome; secretion; transcription regulation; virulence; genetically encoded reporter; vacuole rupture; autophagy Shigella; type III secretion system (T3SS); injectisome; secretion; transcription regulation; virulence; genetically encoded reporter; vacuole rupture; autophagy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bajunaid, W.; Haidar-Ahmad, N.; Kottarampatel, A.H.; Ourida Manigat, F.; Silué, N.; F. Tchagang, C.; Tomaro, K.; Campbell-Valois, F.-X. The T3SS of Shigella: Expression, Structure, Function, and Role in Vacuole Escape. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1933.

AMA Style

Bajunaid W, Haidar-Ahmad N, Kottarampatel AH, Ourida Manigat F, Silué N, F. Tchagang C, Tomaro K, Campbell-Valois F-X. The T3SS of Shigella: Expression, Structure, Function, and Role in Vacuole Escape. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(12):1933.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bajunaid, Waad; Haidar-Ahmad, Nathaline; Kottarampatel, Anwer H.; Ourida Manigat, France; Silué, Navoun; F. Tchagang, Caetanie; Tomaro, Kyle; Campbell-Valois, François-Xavier. 2020. "The T3SS of Shigella: Expression, Structure, Function, and Role in Vacuole Escape" Microorganisms 8, no. 12: 1933.

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