Natural compounds have had increasing applications in the biotechnological sector, with a large fraction of these substances being channeled to the pharmaceutical industry due to their important pharmacological properties. The discovery of new bioactive molecules with novel mechanisms of action constitutes a promising solution for the design of alternative therapeutic solutions. Actinobacteria are a large group of morphologically and physiologically diverse bacteria well known for their production of biotechnologically relevant compounds. The Portuguese coast is scantly explored in terms of Actinobacteria diversity and respective bioactive potential, offering a good opportunity to find new Actinobacteria taxa and bioactive natural products. In this study, we investigated the Actinobacteria diversity associated with a sediment sample collected from the intertidal zone of a beach in northern Portugal, through a cultivation-dependent approach, and screened its antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential. A total of 52 Actinobacteria strains were recovered from the marine sediment, with the largest fraction of the isolates belonging to the genus Micromonospora
. Bioactivity screening assays identified crude extracts of six Streptomyces
strains active against C. albicans
, exhibiting minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values in the range of 3.90–125 μg mL−1
. Twenty-five Actinobacteria crude extracts (obtained from strains of the genera Micromonospora
) exhibited significant effects on the viability of at least one tested cancer cell line (breast ductal carcinoma T-47D and liver hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2). The Actinobacteria extracts demonstrating activity in the antimicrobial and/or cytotoxic assays were subjected to metabolomic analysis (Mass spectrometry (MS)-based dereplication and molecular networking analyses), indicating the presence of four clusters that may represent new natural products. The results obtained demonstrate the importance of bioprospecting underexplored environments, like the Portuguese coast, for enhancing the discovery of new natural products, and call attention to the relevance of preserving the natural genetic diversity of coastal environments.
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