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Article

Baltic Group Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Phylogeography: Systemic Inconsistency Pattern between Genetic and Geographic Distances

1
Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 119048 Moscow, Russia
2
Laboratory of Biology of Arboviruses, Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides (FSBSI “Chumakov FSC R&D IBP RAS), 108819 Moscow, Russia
3
Laboratory for Animal and Plant Parasitology, Institute of Biology of the Karelian Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IB KarRC RAS), 185910 Petrozavodsk, Russia
4
Department of Virology, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119234 Moscow, Russia
5
Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology, Tropical and Vector Borne Diseases, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 119435 Moscow, Russia
6
Department of Organization and Technology of Immunobiological Preparations, Institute for Translational Medicine and Biotechnology, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(10), 1589; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101589
Received: 7 August 2020 / Revised: 7 October 2020 / Accepted: 13 October 2020 / Published: 15 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tick-Borne Encephalitis)
Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus (TBEV) is a dangerous arbovirus widely distributed in Northern Eurasia. The area of this pathogen changes over time. At the beginning of the 2000s, the Ixodes tick populations in Karelia increased. At the same time, the area of I. persulcatus, the main vector of the Siberian TBEV subtype, also expanded. Herein, we sequenced 10 viruses isolated from ticks collected in three locations from the Karelia region in 2008–2018. PCR positive samples were passaged in suckling mice or pig embryo kidney cells (PEK). After the second passage in suckling, mice viral RNA was isolated and E-gene fragment was sequenced. Viral sequences were expected to be similar or nearly identical. Instead, there was up to a 4.8% difference in nucleotide sequence, comparable with the most diverse viruses belonging to the Baltic subgroup in Siberian TBEV subtype (Baltic TBEV-Sib). To reveal whether this was systemic or incidental, a comprehensive phylogeographical analysis was conducted. Interestingly, viruses within each geographic region demonstrated comparable diversity to the whole Baltic TBEV-Sib. Moreover, Baltic TBEV-Sib has a distribution area limited by three ecological regions. This means that active virus mixing occurs in the vast geographic area forming one common virus pool. The most plausible explanation is the involvement of flying animals in the TBEV spread. View Full-Text
Keywords: TBEV; Karelia; Baltic TBEV-Sib subgroup; ticks; Baltic; pairwise genetic distance; pairwise geographical distance TBEV; Karelia; Baltic TBEV-Sib subgroup; ticks; Baltic; pairwise genetic distance; pairwise geographical distance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Deviatkin, A.A.; Kholodilov, I.S.; Belova, O.A.; Bugmyrin, S.V.; Bespyatova, L.A.; Ivannikova, A.Y.; Vakulenko, Y.A.; Lukashev, A.N.; Karganova, G.G. Baltic Group Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Phylogeography: Systemic Inconsistency Pattern between Genetic and Geographic Distances. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1589. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101589

AMA Style

Deviatkin AA, Kholodilov IS, Belova OA, Bugmyrin SV, Bespyatova LA, Ivannikova AY, Vakulenko YA, Lukashev AN, Karganova GG. Baltic Group Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Phylogeography: Systemic Inconsistency Pattern between Genetic and Geographic Distances. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(10):1589. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101589

Chicago/Turabian Style

Deviatkin, Andrei A., Ivan S. Kholodilov, Oxana A. Belova, Sergey V. Bugmyrin, Lubov A. Bespyatova, Anna Y. Ivannikova, Yulia A. Vakulenko, Alexander N. Lukashev, and Galina G. Karganova. 2020. "Baltic Group Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Phylogeography: Systemic Inconsistency Pattern between Genetic and Geographic Distances" Microorganisms 8, no. 10: 1589. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101589

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