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Open AccessArticle

Influenza A Virus Detected in Native Bivalves in Waterfowl Habitat of the Delmarva Peninsula, USA

1
U.S. Geological Survey, Leetown Science Center, 11649 Leetown Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430, USA
2
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Cooperative Oxford Laboratory, 904 South Morris Street, Oxford 21654, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090334
Received: 20 August 2019 / Revised: 4 September 2019 / Accepted: 6 September 2019 / Published: 9 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Avian Influenza Virus Research)
We evaluated the prevalence of influenza A virus (IAV) in different species of bivalves inhabiting natural water bodies in waterfowl habitat along the Delmarva Peninsula and Chesapeake Bay in eastern Maryland. Bivalve tissue from clam and mussel specimens (Macoma balthica, Macoma phenax, Mulinia sp., Rangia cuneata, Mya arenaria, Guekensia demissa, and an undetermined mussel species) from five collection sites was analyzed for the presence of type A influenza virus by qPCR targeting the matrix gene. Of the 300 tissue samples analyzed, 13 samples (4.3%) tested positive for presence of influenza virus A matrix gene. To our knowledge, this is the first report of detection of IAV in the tissue of any bivalve mollusk from a natural water body. View Full-Text
Keywords: avian influenza virus; AIV; bivalve; mollusk; clam; mussel; Delmarva Peninsula; Chesapeake Bay; avian; waterfowl disease avian influenza virus; AIV; bivalve; mollusk; clam; mussel; Delmarva Peninsula; Chesapeake Bay; avian; waterfowl disease
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Densmore, C.L.; Iwanowicz, D.D.; McLaughlin, S.M.; Ottinger, C.A.; Spires, J.E.; Iwanowicz, L.R. Influenza A Virus Detected in Native Bivalves in Waterfowl Habitat of the Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 334.

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