Next Article in Journal
The Anti-Rotaviral Activity of Low Molecular Weight and Non-Proteinaceous Substance from Bifidobacterium longum BORI Cell Extract
Next Article in Special Issue
Response of Microbial Communities and Their Metabolic Functions to Drying–Rewetting Stress in a Temperate Forest Soil
Previous Article in Journal
Broad Environmental Tolerance for a Salicola Host-Phage Pair Isolated from the Cargill Solar Saltworks, Newark, CA, USA

Microorganisms 2019, 7(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7040107

Article
Systematic Affiliation and Genome Analysis of Subtercola vilae DB165T with Particular Emphasis on Cold Adaptation of an Isolate from a High-Altitude Cold Volcano Lake
1
Marine Microbiology, GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany
2
Laboratorio de Complejidad Microbiana y Ecología Funcional and Departamento de Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Recursos Biológicos, Universidad de Antofagasta, Av. Angamos 601, Antofagasta, Chile
3
Department of Bioinformatics, Biocenter, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019

Abstract

:
Among the Microbacteriaceae the species of Subtercola and Agreia form closely associated clusters. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated three major phylogenetic branches of these species. One of these branches contains the two psychrophilic species Subtercola frigoramans and Subtercola vilae, together with a larger number of isolates from various cold environments. Genomic evidence supports the separation of Agreia and Subtercola species. In order to gain insight into the ability of S. vilae to adapt to life in this extreme environment, we analyzed the genome with a particular focus on properties related to possible adaptation to a cold environment. General properties of the genome are presented, including carbon and energy metabolism, as well as secondary metabolite production. The repertoire of genes in the genome of S. vilae DB165T linked to adaptations to the harsh conditions found in Llullaillaco Volcano Lake includes several mechanisms to transcribe proteins under low temperatures, such as a high number of tRNAs and cold shock proteins. In addition, S. vilae DB165T is capable of producing a number of proteins to cope with oxidative stress, which is of particular relevance at low temperature environments, in which reactive oxygen species are more abundant. Most important, it obtains capacities to produce cryo-protectants, and to combat against ice crystal formation, it produces ice-binding proteins. Two new ice-binding proteins were identified which are unique to S. vilae DB165T. These results indicate that S. vilae has the capacity to employ different mechanisms to live under the extreme and cold conditions prevalent in Llullaillaco Volcano Lake.
Keywords:
cold adaptation; Subtercola vilae; genome analysis; systematic affiliation; Llullaillaco Volcano

1. Introduction

The genus Subtercola belongs to the family Microbacteriaceae, members of which are widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic environments, or associated with macroorganisms [1]. Species of Subtercola together with those of Agreia form phylogenetically-related clusters. Subtercola boreus and Subtercola frigoramans are two psychrophilic species isolated from boreal groundwater in Finland [2].
Also Subtercola vilae was isolated from a cold water habitat, i.e., that of the Llullaillaco Volcano Lake [3]. Subtercola lobariae was isolated from the lichen Lobaria retigera in China [4]. While Agreia species appear specifically associated to plants and plant surfaces, species of Subtercola have been found in cold environments, including plant surfaces in such environments [5,6]. Species of both genera share a number of properties, and the borderlines between the two genera are not yet clearly defined. It should be mentioned that Agreia pratensis was originally classified as Subercola pratensis [7,8]. In view of these data, we have studied the genetic relationship between Subtercola and Agreia species in more detail, and analyzed the genome of S. vilae with a focus on aspects related to the cold-adaptation of this bacterium.
S. vilae DB165T was isolated from Llullaillaco Volcano Lake at 6170 m above sea level (Llullaillaco Volcano, Chile) [3]. The environment has been characterized as a cold oligotrophic environment covered year-round by an ice layer. During different expeditions in summer time the lake was covered by an ice layer, while the temperature of lower water masses was at 3–4 °C (6.8 m depth). The temperature at the soil surface on a summer day may vary from −10 °C to >50 °C, due to the high solar radiation present [9,10]. A recent study demonstrated that the microbial communities of Llullaillaco soils are dominated by Actinobacteria, with more than 90% represented by members of the genus Pseudonocardia [10]. Bacteria affiliated to the class Actinobacteria are not only abundant in Llullaillaco soils, but also along the Andean mountains [10,11].
S. vilae revealed optimal growth at temperatures of 10 °C to 15 °C, but could grow well also at 5 °C. There was no growth at 30 °C [3]. These are characteristics of a psychrophilic bacterium. Taking into consideration the environmental distribution of the genus Subtercola in cold environments and the psychrophilic properties of S. frigoramans and S. vilae, the genome of S. vilae DB165T was sequenced and genomic properties are reported, in particular concerning aspects with possible relevance to cold adaptation.

2. Materials and Methods

S. vilae DB165T (DSM 105013T = JCM 32044T) cells were grown in an SGG medium containing 10 g starch, 10 g glucose x H2O, 10 ml glycerol (99.7% v/v), 5 g soy peptone, 2.5 g corn steep solids, 2 g yeast extract, 3 g CaCO3, 1 g NaCl, and 18 g agar in 1 L of deionized water [12] for 5 days at 23 °C. DNA was extracted using a DNeasy®Blood&Tissue Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). The quality and quantity of the extracted DNA was evaluated by 0.8 % (w/v) agarose gel electrophoresis. The genomic DNA library was generated using Nextera XT (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. After fragmentation, size-selection was performed using NucleoMag NGS Clean-up and Size Select (Macherey-Nagel, Düren, Germany) to obtain a library with median insert-size around 400 bp. After PCR enrichment, the library was validated with a high-sensitivity DNA chip and Bioanalyzer 2100 (both Agilent Technologies, Inc. Santa Clara, CA, USA), and additionally quantified using the Qubit dsDNA HS assay (Life Technologies, Ismaning, Germany). Four sequencing runs were performed on a NextSeq device (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) using v2 2 × 150 bp chemistry. In total, 1,304,036,262 bp raw paired-end sequences were subjected to the Trimmomatic software for adapter and quality trimming (mean Phred quality score ≥ 30) [13] filtering of sequences containing ambiguous bases and a minimum length of 200 bp. The remaining 1,206,508,976 bp were assembled with SPAdes assembler, using enabled error pre-correction and k-mer sizes ranging from 15 to 127 (step size of 10) [14]. The assemblies obtained were analyzed using QUAST [15], whereas 127-kmers showed the best quality.
Open reading frames were identified using Prodigal in Prokka and barrnap for rRNA genes [16]. An additional gene prediction and functional annotation was performed with the Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) webservers [17,18], and for natural product gene cluster a comprehensive resource for the genome mining of biosynthetic gene clusters, antiSMASH 3.0 was used [19]. The genome completeness was analyzed with CheckM [20]. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was calculated using 16S rRNA gene of next related type strains of the Microbacteriaceae family, and sequences of strains annotated as Subtercola obtained from different environments.
The sequences were aligned using SINA [21] and the tree was generated on MEGA6 [22] with 1000 bootstrap replicates. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was calculated using 107 essential single-copy genes on bcgTree [23] with 1000 bootstrap.
Putative ice-binding motifs in S. vilae DB165T open reading frames were identified using blastp against amino acid sequences of anti-freeze proteins obtained from UniProt [24]. The hits were further analyzed by protein homology modeling using Phyre2 server [25] and corroborated according the position of functional threonine residues on the surface of the proteins using Visual Molecular Dynamic (VMD 1.9.3) software [26].
The sequencing project was completed in January 2017, and sequence data were deposited as a Whole Genome Shotgun (WGS) project in Genbank under the Bioproject PRJNA491396 and the accession number QYRT00000000, consisting of 103 contigs ≥1000 bp and N50 value of 87665. The version described in this paper is QYRT00000000. The annotated genome is available in RAST under the ID number 2056433.4.

3. Results

3.1. Diversity and Relations of Subtercola and Related Agreia Species

Subtercola and Agreia species constitute a clade well-separated from other Microbactericeae genera. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of Agreia and Subtercola species, including a number of new unclassified environmental isolates reveals interesting aspects on the environmental preferences (Figure 1). One major branch includes the group of Agreia species together with two distinct groups around S. boreus and S. lobariae. The association of many of the representatives of this branch to plants and lichens is remarkable. This includes all Agreia species and a number of additional environmental isolates, but also a Subtercola isolate from an Arctic lichen related to S. boreus as well as S. lobariae (Figure 1). In contrast, the second major branch includes S. vilae and S. frigoramans and a number of isolates from cold environments such as glaciers, Antarctic cryoconite holes, permafrost soils, Antarctic krill [6] (Figure 1), suggesting that these bacteria are adapted to their cold environments.
Taken into consideration the available genome sequences, we have compared genomes of Subtercola and Agreia species using a selection of sequences from 107 single copy genes of various type strains of Microbacteriaceae (Figure 2). The maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree of these essential single-copy genes demonstrates the clear differentiation between the Subtercola and Agreia species (S. vilae DB165T, S. boreus DSM 13056T, Agreia bicolorata DSM 14575T, and A. pratensis DSM 14246T). This separation is supported by high bootstrap values in each separation node, and with separation distances comparable to type species of other genera (e.g. Herbiconiux/Cnuibacter) (Figure 2).
In support of this is the result from comparing the average nucleotide identity (ANI) of S. vilae DB165T with S. boreus DSM 13056T (78%) and with A. bicolorata DSM 14575T (75%) and A. pratensis DSM 14246T (75%), whereas the two Agreia species shared 87%.

3.2. Genome Properties

3.2.1. General Properties

The draft genome sequence of S. vilae DB165T was assembled into 103 contigs (≥1000 bp) containing a total of 4,043,135 bp with an average G+C content of 65.1% (Table 1). From a total of 3879 predicted genes, 3797 (97.8 %) codify for proteins, and 2434 (62.7%) were annotated with a putative function. Genes not linked to a function were annotated as a hypothetical or unknown function. We annotated a total of 82 rRNA genes (2.1 %) divided into 5 rRNA genes (three 5S rRNA, one 16S rRNA, and one 23S rRNA) and 59 tRNA genes. Furthermore, a total of 1416 (36.5%) of the coding sequences were assignment to 24 different classes using COGs. Annotation obtained via RAST assigned a total 2089 sequences to 27 subsystem categories. The highest ranking among the subsystem categories are those concerned with the metabolism of carbohydrates (20.1 %), amino acids and derivatives (15.4 %), cofactors, vitamins, prosthetic groups, pigments (10.7 %), proteins (9.5 %), as well as fatty acids, lipids, and isoprenoids (5.1 %) (Figure 3). Completeness of the genome was calculated by CheckM, using the lineage marker set for Actinomycetales (UID1593), from which 99.5% of the proteins were present in the S. vilae DB165T draft genome.

3.2.2. Carbon and Energy Metabolism

According to the genomic repertoire of sugar metabolizing enzymes, S. vilae DB165T has the potential to metabolize a wide range of sugars, ranging from monosaccharides such as mannose, D-ribose, xylose, D-gluconate ketogluconates, L-arabinose, D-galacturonate, and D-glucoronate; di- and oligosaccharides such as trehalose, sucrose, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), raffinose, maltose, maltodextrin, lactose, and galactose; the polysaccharides glycogen; sugar alcohols such as glycerol, glycerol-3-phosphate, mannitol, and inositol. S. vilae DB165T has the potential to utilize the aminosugar chitin and its monomers, to convert them to fructose-6-phospate for the glycolysis pathway.
S. vilae DB165T has encoded in its genome the enzymes 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (Hbd), 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA epimerase (Hbe), 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (AtoB), and enoyl-CoA hydratase (Eh) needed for the production of poly-hydroxy-butyrates (PHB), that primarily serves as intracellular carbon and energy reserve [27], and are helpful against desiccation and osmotic stress, and also increase UV resistance [28]. The genome of S. vilae DB165T also codifies for enzymes active in polyphosphate (PolyP) formation (exopolyphosphatase, polyphosphate kinase and polyphosphate glucokinase), serving in phosphate storage, but also in protection against UV radiation and temperature stress [29].
Three different rhodopsin genes are encoded in S. vilae DB165T. Two of them (fig|2056433.4.peg.750; fig|2056433.4.peg.1678) showed similarities in their amino acid sequences with annotated rhodopsin in Subtercola boreus (68%, WP_116415267.1; 66%, WP_116281575.1), distantly related to a bacteriorhodopsin of Geodermatophilus species (<50% similarity). The third one resembles a xanthorhodopsin [30] from Clavibacter michiganensis (81%, WP_079533889.1). The presence of rhodopsins in S. vilae DB165T suggests that it might be able to transform energy from solar light [31].

3.2.3. Secondary Metabolite Production

The antiSMASH analysis revealed the presence of three different secondary metabolite gene clusters for the biosynthesis of a type 3 polyketide, a terpene, and a cluster that contained core biosynthetic genes for the non-ribosomal peptide synthesis pathway, but was not categorized in this compound family.
The detected polyketide type 3 synthetase cluster has a total of 36 genes, where 3 genes were identified as the alkylresorcinol synthetic cluster, showing the same sinteny as found in Agreia species, while other annotated genes were affiliated to aminotransferase class V amidase, short chain dehydroganases/reductase, aldo-/ketoreductase family oxidoreductases, pullulanase type I, and alpha-glucosidase, suggesting modifications in the alkylresorcinol scaffold. The genes found in this cluster showed a 63% resemblance to a polyketide type-3 cluster found in Agreia sp. Leaf335, and 55% of genes showed similarity with A. bicolorata VKM Ac-1804T. This indicates the possible biosynthesis of alkylresorcinols by S. vilae. These compounds can easily be incorporated into the cell membranes, causing considerable changes in their structure and properties [32]. Some also showed antibiotic activity [33].
The terpene biosynthetic cluster consists of 24 genes identified as the carotenoid biosynthetic clusters. Genes annotated as core biosynthetic genes were determined as phytoene synthase, lycopene beta elongase BC, while additional biosynthetic genes include polyprenyl synthetase, dehydrogenase, and a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase. The carotenoids in S. vilae DB165T might play an important role in light protection, as membrane modulators at low temperatures [34] and also as antioxidants [35].
The third uncategorized gene cluster has a total of 13 genes and revealed a gene structure, which apparently is conserved in Microbacteriaceae species of the genera Agreia, Clavibacter, and Cellulomonas. The core biosynthetic gene encodes an amino acid adenylation protein similar to the one found in the saframycin A biosynthetic gene cluster, and a zinc metalloprotease. An additional biosynthetic gene, encoding 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, showed identity with the one present in the saframycin A biosynthetic gene cluster.

3.3. Cold stress Adaptation of Subtercola Vilae DB165T

In order to identify adaptation to the harsh conditions of the Llullaillaco Volcano environment, annotated genes sorted in the subsystem categories of RAST and an in-house database of ice-binding motifs were used. Analysis of tRNA species, predicted using barrnap, showed that Subtercola strains isolated from cold waters, showed a higher number of tRNA genes if compared to others. While S. vilae DB165T encodes 59 and S. boreus DSM 13056T 53 tRNA genes, the Agreia species found in nematodes and plants revealed only 51 (A. bicolorata DSM 14575T) and 50 (A. pratensis DSM 14246T) such genes. The higher number and diversity of tRNAs might help counteracting their slow mobilization to the translation sites in those species of Subtercola adapted to cold waters [36,37].

3.3.1. Cryoprotectants

Genes involved in production and uptake of choline and glycine betaine were found in the S. vilae DB165T genome. These compounds are able to maintain membrane fluidity at low temperature and also prevent cold-induced aggregation of cellular proteins [38]. Intracellular proteins can also be protected by the production of the sugar trehalose [39], and S. vilae encodes the complete pathway for the biosynthesis of trehalose and utilization of trehalose. In addition, S. vilae DB165T contains 11 copies of a trehalose permease transport system (SugB).

3.3.2. Temperature Shifts

Among the functions possibly involved in the survival at low temperature are cold shock proteins. The fast production of such cold-inducible proteins is an important adaptation to low temperatures [40]. In S. vilae DB165T we found cold-shock (Csp) proteins annotated as CspA and CspC on RAST and Prokka as well. These proteins act as RNA chaperones, which destabilize mRNA secondary structures formed at low temperatures, and enhance translation efficiency [41]. The genes encoding these proteins are shared between S. vilae DB165T and S. boreus DSM 13056T. On the other hand, we found 11 heat shock proteins that prevent denaturation of cellular proteins at high and low temperatures [42].

3.3.3. Oxidative Stress

Metabolic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generate intracellular damage in proteins, membranes, and DNA. More dissolved oxygen can be found in the water at low temperatures, and may increase the potential of possible damage [43]. Psychrophilic microorganisms are adapted to this harsh condition, and one of these adaptations against the damage caused by ROS is the production of different enzymes involved in the detoxification of the superoxide radical (O2−). S. vilae DB165T encodes several enzymes to fight against the ROS stress. The enzymes found are deferrochelatase/peroxidase (EfeN), thioredoxin/glutathione peroxidase (BtuE), deferrochelatase/peroxidase (EfeB), putative heme-dependent peroxidase, catalase-peroxidase (KatG: one copy), putative non-heme bromoperoxidase (BpoC), catalases (KatA), and superoxide dismutases [Mn; Fe; Cu-Zn] (SodABC).

3.3.4. Ice-binding Proteins

In order to understand possible mechanisms to cope with ice crystal formation inside the cell, we screened the amino acid sequences of all S. vilae DB165T genes against an in-house ice-binding motif database. We obtained two hits of hypothetical proteins with an ice-binding motif in the S. vilae DB165T genome: Svil_00062, which consist in 389 amino acids and Svil_00202, with 380 amino acids. The comparison of both proteins against the Genbank database using blastp showed low identity (40–43%), and low query coverage, sharing only 50–52% of the amino acid sequence with proteins annotated as hypothetical, as well as DUF3494 domain-containing in genomes of other Actinobacteria, such as Arthrobacter alpinus (WP_074712914.1), Cryobacterium sp. Hh39 (WP_119975291.1), Nocardia vaccinia NBRC 15922T (WP_084525865.1), Streptomyces xinghaiensis S187T (WP_039820269.1), among others. The DUF3494 domain has been characterized as an ice-binding motif, suggesting that this conserved motif in Svil_00062 and Svil_00202 proteins may confer the function to bind with ice, whereas the other part of the proteins is not similar with anything reported in the database. As the ice-binding domain revealed a low identity with DUF3494 domain-containing proteins (40–45%) of the database, the sequences of both proteins were modeled by homology with proteins with known structure using the Phyre2 server. The result showed that the proteins were structurally similar to the antifreeze protein observed in the bacterium Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H, which was used as backbone with 100% of confidence for both proteins. The pattern in the β-strands and α-helices of the protein, and the threonine residues, are displayed in parallel, and are facing outside the β-strands (Figure 4). As the placement of these residues is considered to be essential for the ice binding function, it can be concluded that both proteins may have the predicted function [44].
As the other part of the proteins did not show hits with high coverage and identity, the two proteins quite likely represent a new type of ice-binding protein. Interestingly, we could not find either of the two proteins in the genomes of S. boreus DSM 13056T, A. bicolorata DSM 14575T, and A. pratensis DSM 14246T, which are the closest related type strains to S. vilae DB165T.

4. Conclusions

The comparison of 107 selected essential single-copy genes from S. vilae DB165T and the type strains of the closely-related species S. boreus, A. bicolorata, and A. pratensis, revealed a clear separation of the Subtercola and Agreia species (Figure 2). This is in line with the separate branch of Agreia species seen with 16S rRNA gene sequences (Figure 1), and the ecological preference of Agreia for plant surfaces and of Subtercola species for cold environments. Among these species, in particular S. vilae appears to be adapted to live in a cold environment. Several properties of the genome of S. vilae DB165T, which was isolated from the high-altitude cold Llullaillaco Volcano Lake, support this view. This is the first specific study of a genome from such an extreme and cold environment, with particular focus on genomic properties possibly related to the cold adaptation.
The genome encodes a repertoire of genes. The features encoded in the genome of S. vilae DB165T, related to adaptation to the harsh condition of this Llullaillaco Volcano Lake, include mechanisms to transcribe proteins under low temperatures, such as a high number of tRNAs and cold shock proteins as well (Figure 5). S. vilae DB165T is capable of producing several proteins to deal with oxidative stress, which is of higher relevance at low-temperature environments, in which reactive oxygen species are more abundant.
Of particular importance for adaptation to the low-temperature conditions is the ability to produce and take up metabolites that prevent cold-induced aggregation of cellular macromolecules, and also assist in maintaining membrane fluidity [38,45,46,47]. Such solutes, also known as compatible solutes, are represented by glycine betaine and also trehalose, both of which can be synthesized by S. vilae.
Most important for adaptation to the environment with regular ice crystal formation due to great daily changes in temperature appears the possibility of avoiding the formation of ice crystals within the cells, and the production of ice-binding proteins. To combat against the ice crystal formation, two new ice-binding proteins were identified with specific ice-binding domains similar to those found in Colwellia psychrerythraea. These ice-binding proteins are uniquely present in S. vilae DB165T, but absent from the related Subtercola and Agreia species S. boreus DSM 13056T, A. bicolorata DSM 14575T, and A. pratensis DSM 14246T.
Altogether, the presented data demonstrate that S. vilae DB165T can employ an array of different strategies to live at cold temperatures, as prevalent in Llullaillaco Volcano Lake, and can cope with the various stress factors prevailing in the cold environment.

Author Contributions

Performance of experimental work, data analysis and writing the manuscripts first draft by A.S.V., concept development and supervision by J.W. and J.F.I., comparison and tree calculation of selected genes by A.K., all authors contributed to writing and editing the manuscript.

Funding

This research received no external funding.

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge Tanja Rahn for her technical assistance in the DNA extraction, Martin Jahn and Beate Slaby for their support on the bioinformatic software, Wiebke Sickel for the genome sequencing, and Alexa Garin-Fernandez for her contribution in the Figure 5 preparation. Alvaro S. Villalobos was supported by a doctoral fellowship from Becas Chile (CONICYT) and the Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst (DAAD).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interests.

References

  1. Evtushenko, L.I.; Family, X.I. Microbacteriaceae. In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology; Whitman, W., Goodfellow, M., Kämpfer, P., Busse, H.J., Trujillo, M., Ludwig, W., Suzuki, K.I., Parte, A., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Germany, 2012; Volume 5, pp. 807–994. [Google Scholar]
  2. Männisto, M.K.; Schumann, P.; Rainey, F.A.; Kampfer, P.; Tsitko, I.; Tiirola, M.A.; Salkinoja-Salonen, M.S. Subtercola boreus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Subtercola frigoramans sp. nov., two new psychrophilic actinobacteria isolated from boreal groundwater. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2000, 50, 1731–1739. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Villalobos, A.S.; Wiese, J.; Aguilar, P.; Dorador, C.; Imhoff, J.F. Subtercola vilae sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium from an extremely high-altitude cold volcano lake in Chile. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 2018, 111, 955–963. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Si, H.; Shi, F.; Zhang, L.; Yue, H.; Wang, H.; Zhao, Z. Subtercola lobariae sp. nov., an actinobacterium of the family Microbacteriaceae isolated from the lichen Lobaria retigera. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2017, 67, 1516–1521. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Vaïtilingom, M.; Attard, E.; Gaiani, N.; Sancelme, M.; Deguillaume, L.; Flossmann, A.I.; Amato, P.; Delort, A.M. Long-term features of cloud microbiology at the puy de Dôme (France). Atmos. Environ. 2012, 56, 88–100. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Peeters, K.; Ertz, D.; Willems, A. Culturable bacterial diversity at the Princess Elisabeth Station (Utsteinen, Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica) harbours many new taxa. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 2011, 34, 360–367. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Behrendt, U.; Ulrich, A.; Schumann, P.; Naumann, D.; Suzuki, K. Diversity of grass-associated Microbacteriaceae isolated from the phyllosphere and litter layer after mulching the sward; polyphasic characterization of Subtercola pratensis sp. nov., Curtobacterium herbarum sp. nov. and Plantibacter flavus gen. nov., sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2002, 52, 1441–1454. [Google Scholar]
  8. Evtushenko, L.I.; Dorofeeva, L.V.; Dobrovolskaya, T.G.; Streshinskaya, G.M.; Subbotin, S.A.; Tiedje, J.M. Agreia bicolorata gen. nov., sp. nov., to accommodate actinobacteria isolated from narrow reed grass infected by the nematode Heteroanguina graminophila. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2073–2079. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Lynch, R.C.; King, A.J.; Farías, M.E.; Sowell, P.; Vitry, C.; Schmidt, S.K. The potential for microbial life in the highest-elevation (>6000 m.a.s.l.) mineral soils of the Atacama region. J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosci. 2012, 117, 1–10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Lynch, R.C.; Darcy, J.L.; Kane, N.C.; Nemergut, D.R.; Schmidt, S.K. Metagenomic evidence for metabolism of trace atmospheric gases by high-elevation desert actinobacteria. Front. Microbiol. 2014, 5. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Rasuk, M.C.; Ferrer, G.M.; Kurth, D.; Portero, L.R.; Farías, M.E.; Albarracín, V.H. UV-resistant Actinobacteria from high-altitude Andean lakes: Isolation, characterization and antagonistic activities. Photochem. Photobiol. 2017, 93, 865–880. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. Goodfellow, M.; Fiedler, H.P. A guide to successful bioprospecting: Informed by actinobacterial systematics. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 2010, 98, 119–142. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Bolger, A.M.; Lohse, M.; Usadel, B. Trimmomatic: A flexible trimmer for Illumina sequence data. Bioinformatics 2014, 30, 2114–2120. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. Bankevich, A.; Nurk, S.; Antipov, D.; Gurevich, A.A.; Dvorkin, M.; Kulikov, A.S.; Lesin, V.M.; Nikolenko, S.I.; Pham, S.; Prjibelski, A.D.; et al. SPAdes: A new genome assembly algorithm and its applications to single-cell sequencing. J. Comput. Biol. 2012, 19, 455–477. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Gurevich, A.; Saveliev, V.; Vyahhi, N.; Tesler, G. QUAST: Quality assessment tool for genome assemblies. Bioinformatics 2013. [CrossRef]
  16. Seemann, T. Prokka: Rapid prokaryotic genome annotation. Bioinformatics 2014, 30, 2068–2069. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Aziz, R.K.; Bartels, D.; Best, A.; DeJongh, M.; Disz, T.; Edwards, R.A.; Formsma, K.; Gerdes, S.; Glass, E.M.; Kubal, M.; et al. The RAST Server: Rapid annotations using subsystems technology. BMC Genom. 2008, 9, 75. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Overbeek, R.; Olson, R.; Pusch, G.D.; Olsen, G.J.; Davis, J.J.; Disz, T.; Edwards, R.A.; Gerdes, S.; Parrello, B.; Shukla, M.; et al. The SEED and the Rapid Annotation of microbial genomes using Subsystems Technology (RAST). Nucleic Acids Res. 2014, 42, D206–D214. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Weber, T.; Blin, K.; Duddela, S.; Krug, D.; Kim, H.U.; Bruccoleri, R.; Lee, S.Y.; Fischbach, M.A.; Müller, R.; Wohlleben, W.; et al. AntiSMASH 3.0-A comprehensive resource for the genome mining of biosynthetic gene clusters. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015, 43, W237–W243. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Parks, D.H.; Imelfort, M.; Skennerton, C.T.; Hugenholtz, P.; Tyson, G.W. CheckM: Assessing the quality of microbial genomes recovered from isolates, single cells, and metagenomes. Genome Res. 2015, 25, 1043–1055. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Pruesse, E.; Peplies, J.; Glöckner, F.O. SINA: Accurate high-throughput multiple sequence alignment of ribosomal RNA genes. Bioinformatics 2012, 28, 1823–1829. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  22. Tamura, K.; Stecher, G.; Peterson, D.; Filipski, A.; Kumar, S. MEGA6: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol. Biol. Evol. 2013, 30, 2725–2729. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Ankenbrand, M.J.; Keller, A. bcgTree: Automatized phylogenetic tree building from bacterial core genomes. Genome 2016, 59, 783–791. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  24. Magrane, M.; UniProt Consortium. UniProt Knowledgebase: A hub of integrated protein data. Database 2011. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  25. Kelly, L.A.; Mezulis, S.; Yates, C.; Wass, M.; Sternberg, M. The Phyre2 web portal for protein modelling, prediction, and analysis. Nat. Protoc. 2015, 10, 845–858. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Humphrey, W.; Dalke, A.; Schulten, K. VMD: Visual molecular dynamics. J. Mol. Graph. 1996, 14, 33–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  27. Tal, S.; Okon, Y. Production of the reserve material poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate and its function in Azospirillum brasilense Cd. Can. J. Microbiol. 1985, 31, 608–613. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Kadouri, D.; Jurkevitch, E.; Okon, Y. Involvement of the reserve material poly-β-hydroxybutyrate in Azospirillum brasilense stress endurance and root colonization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2003, 69, 3244–3250. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Seufferheld, M.J.; Alvarez, H.M.; Farias, M.E. Role of polyphosphates in microbial adaptation to extreme environments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2008, 74, 5867–5874. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  30. Lanyi, J.K.; Balashov, S.P. Xanthorhodopsin: A bacteriorhodopsin-like proton pump with a carotenoid antenna. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2008, 1777, 684–688. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  31. Ernst, O.P.; Lodowski, D.T.; Elstner, M.; Hegemann, P.; Brown, L.S.; Kandori, H. Microbial and animal rhodopsins: Structures, functions, and molecular mechanisms. Chem. Rev. 2014, 114, 126–163. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  32. Kozubek, A.; Tyman, J.H.P. Resorcinolic lipids, the natural non-isoprenoid phenolic amphiphiles and their biological activity. Chem. Rev. 1998, 99, 1–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Kanda, N.; Ishizaki, N.; Inoue, N.; Oshima, M.; Handa, A.; Kitahara, T. DB-2073, a new alkylresorcinol antibiotic. I. Taxonomy, isolation and characterization. J. Antibiot. 1975, 28, 935–942. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Chattopadhyay, M.K. Mechanism of bacterial adaptation to low temperature. J. Biosci. 2006, 31, 157–165. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  35. Young, A.J.; Lowe, G.M. Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of carotenoids. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2001, 385, 20–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  36. Rocha, E.P.C. Codon usage bias from tRNA’s point of view: Redundancy, specialization, and efficient decoding for translation optimization. Genome Res. 2004, 14, 2279–2286. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  37. Math, R.K.; Jin, H.M.; Kim, J.M.; Hahn, Y.; Park, W.; Madsen, E.L.; Jeon, C.O. Comparative genomics reveals adaptation by Alteromonas sp. SN2 to marine tidal-flat conditions: Cold tolerance and aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism. PLoS ONE 2012, 7, e35784. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  38. Le Rudulier, D.; Strom, A.R.; Dandekar, A.M.; Smith, L.T.; Valentine, R.C. Molecular biology of osmoregulation. Science 1984, 224, 1064–1068. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  39. Kandror, O.; DeLeon, A.; Goldberg, A.L. Trehalose synthesis is induced upon exposure of Escherichia coli to cold and is essential for viability at low temperatures. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2002, 99, 9727–9732. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  40. Phadtare, S.; Alsina, J.; Inouye, M. Cold-shock response and cold-shock proteins. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 1999, 2, 175–180. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  41. Chaikam, V.; Karlson, D.T. Comparison of structure, function and regulation of plant cold shock domain proteins to bacterial and animal cold shock domain proteins. BMB Rep. 2010, 43, 1–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  42. Schumann, W. Regulation of bacterial heat shock stimulons. Cell Stress Chaperones 2016, 21, 959–968. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  43. D’Amico, S.; Collins, T.; Marx, J.C.; Feller, G.; Gerday, C. Psychrophilic microorganisms: Challenges for life. EMBO Rep. 2006, 7, 385–389. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. Leinala, E.K.; Davies, P.L.; Jia, Z. Crystal structure of β-Helical antifreeze protein points to a general ice binding model. Structure 2002, 10, 619–627. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  45. Imhoff, J.F.; Rodriguez-Valera, F. Betaine is the main compatible solute of halophilic eubacteria. J. Bacteriol. 1984, 160, 478–479. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
  46. Imhoff, J.F. Minireview—True marine and halophilic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. Arch. Microbiol. 2001, 176, 243–254. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  47. Imhoff, J.F. Osmoregulation and compatible solutes in eubacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 1986, 39, 57–66. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Figure 1. Phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences highlighting the position of Subtercola vilae DB165T and other sequences annotated as Subtercola strains deposited in National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), relative to phylogenetically closely-related type strains within the family Microbacteriaceae with 1000 bootstraps. Bootstrap values >50% are indicated. Bar indicates 0.05 nucleotides substitutions per site.
Figure 1. Phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences highlighting the position of Subtercola vilae DB165T and other sequences annotated as Subtercola strains deposited in National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), relative to phylogenetically closely-related type strains within the family Microbacteriaceae with 1000 bootstraps. Bootstrap values >50% are indicated. Bar indicates 0.05 nucleotides substitutions per site.
Microorganisms 07 00107 g001
Figure 2. Maximum-likelihood tree based on 107 essential single-copy genes (amino acids) of Subtercola vilae DB165T and Microbacteriaceae-type strains, and two Kocuria-type strains as outgroup with 1000 bootstraps. Project accession is indicated in brackets. Bootstrap values >50% are indicated. Bar indicates 0.05 amino acids substitutions per site.
Figure 2. Maximum-likelihood tree based on 107 essential single-copy genes (amino acids) of Subtercola vilae DB165T and Microbacteriaceae-type strains, and two Kocuria-type strains as outgroup with 1000 bootstraps. Project accession is indicated in brackets. Bootstrap values >50% are indicated. Bar indicates 0.05 amino acids substitutions per site.
Microorganisms 07 00107 g002
Figure 3. Metabolic subsystems of S. vilae DB165T annotated through the RAST webserver.
Figure 3. Metabolic subsystems of S. vilae DB165T annotated through the RAST webserver.
Microorganisms 07 00107 g003
Figure 4. Cartoon representation of ice-binding motif models of Svilae_00062 (blue) and Svilae_00202 (red). The putative ice-binding surface with ordered threonine residues (yellow), is shown. Arrows and ribbons represent β-strands and α-helices, respectively.
Figure 4. Cartoon representation of ice-binding motif models of Svilae_00062 (blue) and Svilae_00202 (red). The putative ice-binding surface with ordered threonine residues (yellow), is shown. Arrows and ribbons represent β-strands and α-helices, respectively.
Microorganisms 07 00107 g004
Figure 5. Traits annotated in the S. vilae DB165T genome considered to be involved in its adaptation to the Llullaillaco Volcano Lake. ROS, reactive oxygen species.
Figure 5. Traits annotated in the S. vilae DB165T genome considered to be involved in its adaptation to the Llullaillaco Volcano Lake. ROS, reactive oxygen species.
Microorganisms 07 00107 g005
Table 1. Genome statistics according to Prokka annotation.
Table 1. Genome statistics according to Prokka annotation.
AttributeValuePercentage of total
Genomes Size (bp)4,043,135100
Contigs103
N5087,665
DNA G+C content65.1
Total of genes3879100
Coding sequences379797.8
Genes with function prediction243462.7
Genes assigned to COGs141636.5
RNA genes822.11
rRNA genes50.1
Pseudo genes00
5S rRNA30.07
16S rRNA10.02
23S rRNA10.02
tRNA591.5
Other RNA180.46

© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Back to TopTop