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Microorganisms 2019, 7(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7020028

Marine Alkaloid 2,2-Bis(6-bromo-3-indolyl) Ethylamine and Its Synthetic Derivatives Inhibit Microbial Biofilms Formation and Disaggregate Developed Biofilms

1
Department of Biomolecular Science, Division of Toxicological, Hygiene and Environmental Science, Via S. Chiara 27, University of Urbino Carlo Bo, 61029 Urbino, Italy
2
Department of Biomolecular Science, Section of Organic Chemistry and Organic Natural Compounds, University of Urbino Carlo Bo, Via I Maggetti 24, 61029 Urbino, Italy
3
Department of Biomolecular Science, Division of Chemistry, Piazza del Rinascimento 6, University of Urbino Carlo Bo, 61029 Urbino, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 20 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Microbiology)
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Abstract

The antimicrobial activity of the marine bisindole alkaloid 2,2-bis(6-bromo-3-indolyl) ethylamine (1) and related synthetic analogues (compounds 28) against target microorganisms was investigated by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determination. Compound 1 showed the greatest antimicrobial activity with the lowest MIC (8 mg/L) against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, while the derivatives exhibited higher MICs values (from 16 to 128 mg/L). Compounds 1, 3, 4, and 8, the most active ones, were then tested against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, and Candida albicans during biofilms formation as well as on 24 h developed biofilms. The natural alkaloid 1 inhibited the biofilm formation of all the tested microorganisms up to 82.2% and disaggregated biofilms of E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, and C. albicans after 30 min of contact, as assessed by viable plate count and crystal violet (CV) staining (optical density at 570 nm). Synthetic derivatives 3, 4, and 8 displayed anti-biofilm activity toward individual bacterial populations. This study highlights the potential of marine bisindole alkaloid 1 as anti-biofilm agent and shows, through a preliminary structure activity relationship (SAR), the importance of halogens and ethylamine side chain for the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of this bisindole series. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine bisindole alkaloids; bisindole derivatives; anti-biofilm activity marine bisindole alkaloids; bisindole derivatives; anti-biofilm activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Campana, R.; Favi, G.; Baffone, W.; Lucarini, S. Marine Alkaloid 2,2-Bis(6-bromo-3-indolyl) Ethylamine and Its Synthetic Derivatives Inhibit Microbial Biofilms Formation and Disaggregate Developed Biofilms. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 28.

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