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Open AccessArticle

A Mesophilic Aeromonas salmonicida Strain Isolated from an Unsuspected Host, the Migratory Bird Pied Avocet

1
INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Bacterial Symbionts Evolution, Laval City, QC H7V 1B7, Canada
2
Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes, Pavillon Charles-Eugène-Marchand, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
3
Centre de Recherche de l’Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Quebec City, QC G1V 4G5, Canada
4
Département de Biochimie, de Microbiologie et de Bio-Informatique, Faculté des Sciences et de Génie, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
5
Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, CH-3001 Bern, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(12), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7120592
Received: 22 August 2019 / Revised: 14 November 2019 / Accepted: 15 November 2019 / Published: 20 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue An Update on Aeromonas)
Aeromonas salmonicida is a Gram-negative bacterium, known as a fish pathogen since its discovery. Although the species was initially considered psychrophilic, a mesophilic subspecies (pectinolytica) and many other mesophilic strains still not attributed to subspecies have been described in the last two decades. These mesophilic strains were sampled from various sources, including humans, and some of them are known to be pathogenic. In this study, we describe a strain, JF2480, which was isolated from the spleen, and also found the kidney and liver of a dead pied avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), a type of migratory bird inhabiting aquatic environments. A core genome phylogenomic analysis suggests that JF2480 is taxonomically distant from other known A. salmonicida subspecies. The genome sequence confirms that the strain possesses key virulence genes that are present in the typical A. salmonicida psychrophilic subspecies, with the exception of the genes encoding the type three secretion system (T3SS). Bacterial virulence assays conducted on the surrogate host Dictyostelium discoideum amoeba confirmed that the strain is virulent despite the lack of T3SS. Bacterial growth curves showed that strain JF2480 grow well at 40 °C, the body temperature of the pied avocet, and even faster at 41 °C, compared to other mesophilic strains. Discovery of this strain further demonstrates the extent of the phylogenomic tree of this species. This study also suggests that A. salmonicida can infect a wider array of hosts than previously suspected and that we need to rethink the way we perceive A. salmonicida’s natural environment.
Keywords: Aeromonas salmonicida; mesophile; bird; pied avocet; Dictyostelium discoideum; pathogenesis Aeromonas salmonicida; mesophile; bird; pied avocet; Dictyostelium discoideum; pathogenesis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vincent, A.T.; Bernatchez, A.; Frey, J.; Charette, S.J. A Mesophilic Aeromonas salmonicida Strain Isolated from an Unsuspected Host, the Migratory Bird Pied Avocet. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 592.

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