The function of Arctic soil ecosystems is crucially important for the global climate, and nitrogen (N) is the major limiting nutrient in these environments. This study assessed the effects of changes in nitrogen content on archaeal community diversity and composition in the Arctic lake area (London Island, Svalbard). A total of 16S rRNA genes were sequenced to investigate archaeal community composition. First, the soil samples and sediment samples were significantly different for the geochemical properties and archaeal community composition. Thaumarchaeota was an abundant phylum in the nine soil samples. Moreover, Euryarchaeota, Woesearchaeota, and Bathyarchaeota were significantly abundant phyla in the three sediment samples. Second, it was found that the surface runoff caused by the thawing of frozen soil and snow changed the geochemical properties of soils. Then, changes in geochemical properties affected the archaeal community composition in the soils. Moreover, a distance-based redundancy analysis revealed that NH4+–N (p < 0.05) and water content were the most significant factors that correlated with the archaeal community composition. Our study suggests that nitrogen content plays an important role in soil archaeal communities. Moreover, archaea play an important role in the carbon and nitrogen cycle in the Arctic lake area.
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