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Open AccessArticle

Aided Phytoremediation to Clean Up Dioxins/Furans-Aged Contaminated Soil: correlation between microbial communities and pollutant dissipation

1
Université du Littoral Côte d’Opale, UCEIV-EA 4492, SFR Condorcet FR CNRS 3417, CS 80699, F-62228 Calais cedex, France
2
Institut de Recherche en Biologie Végétale, Université de Montréal and Jardin botanique de Montréal, 4101 Rue Sherbrooke Est, Montréal, QC H1X 2B2, Canada
3
AgroBioSciences, Mohammed VI Polytechnic University, Lot 660, Hay Moulay Rachid, Ben Guerir, 43150 Morocco
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(11), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7110523
Received: 10 September 2019 / Revised: 24 October 2019 / Accepted: 31 October 2019 / Published: 3 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycorrhizal Fungi)
To restore and clean up polluted soils, aided phytoremediation was found to be an effective, eco-friendly, and feasible approach in the case of many organic pollutants. However, little is known about its potential efficiency regarding polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans-contaminated soils. Thus, phytoremediation of aged dioxins/furans-contaminated soil was carried out through microcosm experiments vegetated with alfalfa combined with different amendments: an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculum (Funneliformis mosseae), a biosurfactant (rhamnolipids), a dioxins/furans degrading-bacterium (Sphingomonas wittichii RW1), and native microbiota. The total dioxins/furans dissipation was estimated to 23%, which corresponds to 48 ng.kg−1 of soil, after six months of culture in the vegetated soil combined with the four amendments compared to the non-vegetated soil. Our findings showed that the dioxins/furans dissipation resulted from the stimulation of soil microbial enzyme activities (fluorescein diacetate hydrolase and dehydrogenase) and the increase of bacterial abundance, richness, and diversity, as well as fungal diversity. Amplicon sequencing using Illumina MiSeq analysis led to identification of several bacterial (Bacillaceae, Sphingomonadaceae) and fungal (Chaetomium) groups known to be involved in dioxins/furans degradation. Furthermore, concomitant cytotoxicity and dioxins/furans concentration decreases were pointed out in the phytoremediated soil. The current study demonstrated the usefulness of combining different types of amendments to improve phytoremediation efficacy of aged dioxins/furans-contaminated soils.
Keywords: phytoremediation; dioxins/furans; microbial community; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; biosurfactant phytoremediation; dioxins/furans; microbial community; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; biosurfactant
MDPI and ACS Style

Meglouli, H.; Fontaine, J.; Verdin, A.; Magnin-Robert, M.; Tisserant, B.; Hijri, M.; Sahraoui, A.-H. Aided Phytoremediation to Clean Up Dioxins/Furans-Aged Contaminated Soil: correlation between microbial communities and pollutant dissipation. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 523.

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