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Open AccessArticle

The Human Milk Microbiota is Modulated by Maternal Diet

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-000, SP, Brazil
Food Research Center (FoRC), University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-000, SP, Brazil
Laboratory of Genomics and Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 01246-904, SP, Brazil
Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 03828-000, SP, Brazil
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(11), 502;
Received: 17 September 2019 / Revised: 21 October 2019 / Accepted: 24 October 2019 / Published: 29 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Gut Microbiota Interactions)
Human milk microorganisms contribute not only to the healthy development of the immune system in infants, but also in shaping the gut microbiota. We evaluated the effect of the maternal diet during pregnancy and during the first month of lactation on the human milk microbiota in a cross-sectional study including 94 healthy lactating women. Microbiota composition was determined by 16S rDNA profiling and nutrient intake assessed through food questionnaires. Thirteen genera were present in at least 90% of all samples, with three genera present in all samples: Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Corynebacterium. Cluster analysis indicated two distinct compositions: one marked by a high abundance of Streptococcus (cluster 1), and other by a high abundance of Staphylococcus (cluster 2). A global association with milk microbiota diversity was observed for vitamin C intake during pregnancy (p = 0.029), which was higher for cluster 2 individuals (cluster 2 median = 232 mg/d; cluster 1 = 175 mg/d; p = 0.02). Positive correlations were found between Bifidobacterium in the milk and intake of polyunsaturated and linoleic fatty acids during the lactation period (p < 0.01). We show that maternal diet influences the human milk microbiota, especially during pregnancy, which may contribute in shaping the gut microbiota. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal diet; microbiota; breast milk; gut colonization; breastfeeding maternal diet; microbiota; breast milk; gut colonization; breastfeeding
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Padilha, M.; Danneskiold-Samsøe, N.B.; Brejnrod, A.; Hoffmann, C.; Cabral, V.P.; Iaucci, J.M.; Sales, C.H.; Fisberg, R.M.; Cortez, R.V.; Brix, S.; Taddei, C.R.; Kristiansen, K.; Saad, S.M.I. The Human Milk Microbiota is Modulated by Maternal Diet. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 502.

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