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Live Yeast and Yeast Cell Wall Supplements Enhance Immune Function and Performance in Food-Producing Livestock: A Review †,

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Livestock Issues Research Unit, Lubbock, TX 79403, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mention of trade names or commercial products in this article is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal, or because all or part of an individual’s income is derived from any public assistance program. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA’s TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). To file a complaint of discrimination, write to USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, 1400 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20250-9410, or call (800) 795-3272 (voice) or (202) 720-6382 (TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Comi
Microorganisms 2015, 3(3), 417-427;
Received: 26 May 2015 / Revised: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 29 July 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Activity in Food)
PDF [373 KB, uploaded 7 August 2015]


More livestock producers are seeking natural alternatives to antibiotics and antimicrobials, and searching for supplements to enhance growth performance, and general animal health and well-being. Some of the compounds currently being utilized and studied are live yeast and yeast-based products derived from the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These products have been reported to have positive effects both directly and indirectly on the immune system and its subsequent biomarkers, thereby mitigating negative effects associated with stress and disease. These yeast-based products have also been reported to simultaneously enhance growth and performance by enhancing dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) perhaps through the establishment of a healthy gastrointestinal tract. These products may be especially useful in times of potential stress such as during birth, weaning, early lactation, and during the receiving period at the feedlot. Overall, yeast supplements appear to possess the ability to improve animal health and metabolism while decreasing morbidity, thereby enhancing profitability of these animals. View Full-Text
Keywords: yeast; immunity; metabolism; livestock yeast; immunity; metabolism; livestock
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Broadway, P.R.; Carroll, J.A.; Sanchez, N.C.B. Live Yeast and Yeast Cell Wall Supplements Enhance Immune Function and Performance in Food-Producing Livestock: A Review †,. Microorganisms 2015, 3, 417-427.

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