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Article

Structural and Metabolic Profiling of Lycopersicon esculentum Rhizosphere Microbiota Artificially Exposed at Commonly Used Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

1
Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, INCDO-INOE 2000, 400293 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2
Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, 400028 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
3
Research Center of Forest Management Engineering of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Daolin Du
Microorganisms 2022, 10(2), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10020254
Received: 8 December 2021 / Revised: 6 January 2022 / Accepted: 18 January 2022 / Published: 24 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Microbiome: Biotic and Abiotic Interactions)
In this study, the effect of common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on Lycopersicon esculentum rhizosphere microbiota was monitored. The experiments were performed with artificially contaminated soil with ibuprofen (0.5 mg·kg−1), ketoprofen (0.2 mg·kg−1) and diclofenac (0.7 mg·kg−1). The results evidenced that the rhizosphere microbiota abundance decreased especially under exposure to diclofenac (187–201 nmol·g−1 dry weight soil) and ibuprofen (166–183 nmol·g−1 dry weight soil) if compared with control (185–240 nmol·g−1 dry weight soil), while the fungal/bacteria ratio changed significantly with exposure to diclofenac (<27%) and ketoprofen (<18%). Compared with control samples, the average amount of the ratio of Gram-negative/Gram-positive bacteria was higher in rhizosphere soil contaminated with ibuprofen (>25%) and lower in the case of diclofenac (<46%) contamination. Carbon source consumption increased with the time of assay in case of the control samples (23%) and those contaminated with diclofenac (8%). This suggests that rhizosphere microbiota under contamination with diclofenac consume a higher amount of carbon, but they do not consume a larger variety of its sources. In the case of contamination with ibuprofen and ketoprofen, the consumption of carbon source presents a decreasing tendency after day 30 of the assay. Rhizosphere microbiota emitting volatile organic compounds were also monitored. Volatile compounds belonging to alcohol, aromatic compounds, ketone, terpene, organic acids, aldehyde, sulphur compounds, esters, alkane, nitrogen compounds, alkene and furans were detected in rhizosphere soil samples. Among these, terpene, ketone, alcohol, aromatic compounds, organic acids and alkane were the most abundant compound classes (>75%), but their percentage changed with exposure to diclofenac, ketoprofen and ibuprofen. Such changes in abundance, structure and the metabolic activity of Lycopersicon esculentum rhizosphere microbiota under exposure to common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs suggest that there is a probability to also change the ecosystem services provided by rhizosphere microbiota. View Full-Text
Keywords: microorganisms; pharmaceuticals; exposure; functioning microorganisms; pharmaceuticals; exposure; functioning
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kovacs, E.D.; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, L.; Roman, C.; Tian, D. Structural and Metabolic Profiling of Lycopersicon esculentum Rhizosphere Microbiota Artificially Exposed at Commonly Used Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs. Microorganisms 2022, 10, 254. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10020254

AMA Style

Kovacs ED, Silaghi-Dumitrescu L, Roman C, Tian D. Structural and Metabolic Profiling of Lycopersicon esculentum Rhizosphere Microbiota Artificially Exposed at Commonly Used Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs. Microorganisms. 2022; 10(2):254. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10020254

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kovacs, Emoke D., Luminita Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Cecilia Roman, and Di Tian. 2022. "Structural and Metabolic Profiling of Lycopersicon esculentum Rhizosphere Microbiota Artificially Exposed at Commonly Used Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs" Microorganisms 10, no. 2: 254. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10020254

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