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Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Cuba, Half a Century of Scientific Research

1
School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
2
Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP 13400-970, Brazil
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Direction of Animal Health, National Center for Animal and Plant Health, Carretera de Tapaste y Autopista Nacional, Apartado postal 10, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque 32700, Cuba
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Animal Biotechnology Department, Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Avenue 31 between 158 and 190, P.O. Box 6162, Havana 10600, Cuba
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Department of Mycology-Bacteriology, Institute of Tropical Medicine Pedro Kourí, Apartado Postal 601, Marianao 13, Havana 17100, Cuba
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Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2, Canada
7
Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Agrarian University of Havana, Carretera Tapaste y Autopista Nacional, Km 23½, Mayabeque 32700, Cuba
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National Laboratory of Parasitology, Ministry of Agriculture, Autopista San Antonio de los Baños, Km 1½, San Antonio de los Baños, Artemisa 38100, Cuba
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School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Washington State, University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
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Direction of Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture, Ave. Boyeros y Conill, Plaza, Havana 10600, Cuba
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Faculty of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, Campus Jaboticabal, Via de Acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, Jaboticabal, São Paulo 14884-900, Brazil
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Department of Animal Parasitology, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), BR 465, Km 7, Seropedica, RJ 23890000, Brazil
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Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), BR 465, Km 7, Seropedica, RJ 23890000, Brazil
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UMR BIPAR, INRAE, ANSES, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d’Alfort, Université Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(8), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9080616
Received: 5 July 2020 / Revised: 23 July 2020 / Accepted: 24 July 2020 / Published: 28 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection New Frontiers in Tick Research)
Ticks and the vast array of pathogens they transmit, including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminths, constitute a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide. In Cuba, the major tropical island in the Caribbean, ticks are an important cause of vector-borne diseases affecting livestock production, pet animal health and, to a lesser extent, human health. The higher number of tick species in the country belong to the Argasidae family and, probably less known, is the presence of an autochthonous tick species in the island, Ixodes capromydis. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of the ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) affecting animal and human health in Cuba. The review covers research results including ecophysiology of ticks, the epidemiology of TBPs, and the diagnostic tools used currently in the country for the surveillance of TBPs. We also introduce the programs implemented in the country for tick control and the biotechnology research applied to the development of anti-tick vaccines. View Full-Text
Keywords: ticks; anaplasmosis; babesiosis; theileriosis; ehrlichiosis; GavacTM ticks; anaplasmosis; babesiosis; theileriosis; ehrlichiosis; GavacTM
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MDPI and ACS Style

Obregón Alvarez, D.; Corona-González, B.; Rodríguez-Mallón, A.; Rodríguez Gonzalez, I.; Alfonso, P.; Noda Ramos, A.A.; Díaz-Sánchez, A.A.; González Navarrete, M.; Rodríguez Fernández, R.; Méndez Mellor, L.; Catanese, H.N.; Peláez, M.; Alemán Gainza, Y.; Marrero-Perera, R.; Roblejo-Arias, L.; Lobo-Rivero, E.; Silva, C.B.; Fonseca, A.H.; Roque López, E.; Cabezas-Cruz, A. Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Cuba, Half a Century of Scientific Research. Pathogens 2020, 9, 616. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9080616

AMA Style

Obregón Alvarez D, Corona-González B, Rodríguez-Mallón A, Rodríguez Gonzalez I, Alfonso P, Noda Ramos AA, Díaz-Sánchez AA, González Navarrete M, Rodríguez Fernández R, Méndez Mellor L, Catanese HN, Peláez M, Alemán Gainza Y, Marrero-Perera R, Roblejo-Arias L, Lobo-Rivero E, Silva CB, Fonseca AH, Roque López E, Cabezas-Cruz A. Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Cuba, Half a Century of Scientific Research. Pathogens. 2020; 9(8):616. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9080616

Chicago/Turabian Style

Obregón Alvarez, Dasiel, Belkis Corona-González, Alina Rodríguez-Mallón, Islay Rodríguez Gonzalez, Pastor Alfonso, Angel A. Noda Ramos, Adrian A. Díaz-Sánchez, Maylin González Navarrete, Rafmary Rodríguez Fernández, Luis Méndez Mellor, Helen N. Catanese, Manuel Peláez, Yousmel Alemán Gainza, Roxana Marrero-Perera, Lisset Roblejo-Arias, Evelyn Lobo-Rivero, Claudia B. Silva, Adivaldo H. Fonseca, Eugenio Roque López, and Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz. 2020. "Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Cuba, Half a Century of Scientific Research" Pathogens 9, no. 8: 616. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9080616

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