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Multidrug Resistance (MDR) and Collateral Sensitivity in Bacteria, with Special Attention to Genetic and Evolutionary Aspects and to the Perspectives of Antimicrobial Peptides—A Review

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Department of Genetics, University of Szeged, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary
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Ethiopian Biotechnology Institute, Agricultural Biotechnology Directorate, Addis Ababa 5954, Ethiopia
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Institute of Biochemistry, Biological Research Centre, H-6726 Szeged, Temesvári krt. 62, Hungary
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Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Veterinary Medicine, H-1581 Budapest, P.O. Box 22, Hungary
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Hungarian Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Biology and Geology, Babeș-Bolyai University, 5-7 Clinicilor St., 400006 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Institute for Research-Development-Innovation in Applied Natural Sciences, Babeș-Bolyai University, 30 Fântânele St., 400294 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691, USA
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Max-Planck Institut für Pflanzenzüchtungsforschung, Carl-von-Linné-Weg 10, D-50829 Köln, Germany
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National Cereals and Produce Board, Mombasa 80100, Kenya
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OLPE, LLC, Audubon, PA 19403-1965, USA
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Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, H-1085 Budapest, Hungary
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Arrevus, Inc., Raleigh, NC 27612, USA
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Centre for Systems Biology, Biodiversity and Bioresources, Babeș-Bolyai University, 5-7 Clinicilor St., 400006 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Research Institute on Bioengineering, Membrane Technology and Energetics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Veszprem, H-8200 Veszprém, Hungary
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070522
Received: 23 March 2020 / Revised: 23 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control Of Plant Diseases)
Antibiotic poly-resistance (multidrug-, extreme-, and pan-drug resistance) is controlled by adaptive evolution. Darwinian and Lamarckian interpretations of resistance evolution are discussed. Arguments for, and against, pessimistic forecasts on a fatal “post-antibiotic era” are evaluated. In commensal niches, the appearance of a new antibiotic resistance often reduces fitness, but compensatory mutations may counteract this tendency. The appearance of new antibiotic resistance is frequently accompanied by a collateral sensitivity to other resistances. Organisms with an expanding open pan-genome, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, can withstand an increased number of resistances by exploiting their evolutionary plasticity and disseminating clonally or poly-clonally. Multidrug-resistant pathogen clones can become predominant under antibiotic stress conditions but, under the influence of negative frequency-dependent selection, are prevented from rising to dominance in a population in a commensal niche. Antimicrobial peptides have a great potential to combat multidrug resistance, since antibiotic-resistant bacteria have shown a high frequency of collateral sensitivity to antimicrobial peptides. In addition, the mobility patterns of antibiotic resistance, and antimicrobial peptide resistance, genes are completely different. The integron trade in commensal niches is fortunately limited by the species-specificity of resistance genes. Hence, we theorize that the suggested post-antibiotic era has not yet come, and indeed might never come.
Keywords: MDR; intrinsic/acquired resistance; collateral sensitivity; negative frequency-dependent selection; experimental evolution; pangenome; global dissemination; mobility patterns of resistance genes; adaptive evolution MDR; intrinsic/acquired resistance; collateral sensitivity; negative frequency-dependent selection; experimental evolution; pangenome; global dissemination; mobility patterns of resistance genes; adaptive evolution
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Fodor, A.; Abate, B.A.; Deák, P.; Fodor, L.; Gyenge, E.; Klein, M.G.; Koncz, Z.; Muvevi, J.; Ötvös, L.; Székely, G.; Vozik, D.; Makrai, L. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) and Collateral Sensitivity in Bacteria, with Special Attention to Genetic and Evolutionary Aspects and to the Perspectives of Antimicrobial Peptides—A Review. Pathogens 2020, 9, 522.

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