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Evaluation of the Immunomodulatory Ability of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Feedlot Cattle Against Mastitis Using a Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells In Vitro Assay
Open AccessArticle

Prolactin and Estradiol are Epigenetic Modulators in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells during Staphylococcus aureus Infection

1
Centro Multidisciplinario de Estudios en Biotecnología, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia 58893, Mexico
2
Trayectoria en Genómica Alimentaria, Universidad de la Ciénega del Estado de Michoacán de Ocampo, Sahuayo 59103, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070520
Received: 4 June 2020 / Revised: 22 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 28 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mastitis in Dairy Ruminants)
Changes in the levels of reproductive hormones compromise the bovine innate immune response (IIR). Changes in 17β-estradiol (E2) and prolactin (bPRL) levels affect the IIR of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs), the target tissue of these hormones. In this work, we explored the effect of the combined hormones on bMEC IIR during Staphylococcus aureus infection, and if they can modulate epigenetic marks. By gentamicin protection assays, we determined that combined hormones (bPRL (5 ng/mL) and E2 (50 pg/mL)] decrease S. aureus internalization into bMECs (~50%), which was associated with a reduction in integrin α5β1 membrane abundance (MA) (~80%) determined by flow cytometry. Additionally, combined hormones increased Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) MA (~25%). By RT-qPCR, we showed that combined hormones induce the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes, as well as up-regulate antimicrobial peptide gene expression. The combined hormones induced H3K9Ac at 12 h of treatment, which coincides with the reduction in histone deacetylase (HDAC, ~15%) activity. In addition, hormones increased the H3K9me2 mark at 12 h, which correlates with a reduction in the expression of KDM4A. In conclusion, bPRL and E2 modulate the IIR of bMECs, an effect that can be related to the regulation of histone H3 modifications such as H3K9Ac and H3K9me2. View Full-Text
Keywords: mammary epithelial cells; prolactin; estradiol; innate immunity; epigenetic marks; Staphylococcus aureus mammary epithelial cells; prolactin; estradiol; innate immunity; epigenetic marks; Staphylococcus aureus
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Salgado-Lora, M.G.; Medina-Estrada, I.; López-Meza, J.E.; Ochoa-Zarzosa, A. Prolactin and Estradiol are Epigenetic Modulators in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells during Staphylococcus aureus Infection. Pathogens 2020, 9, 520.

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