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Emerging Prevention and Treatment Strategies to Control COVID-19

Coronavirus Disease Pandemic (COVID-19): Challenges and a Global Perspective

Division of Biological Standardization, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh 243122, India
ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, OIE Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 022, India
Laboratory for Structural Bioinformatics, Biosystems Dynamics Research Center, Riken 250-0047, Japan
Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh 243122, India
Medical Microbiology, Department of Virology, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160012, India
Dept. of Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Raebareli Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226014, India
Zoonosis Science Center, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, SE 75123 Uppsala SE75-123, Sweden
Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, UAE
Division of Epidemiology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh 243122, India
Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 190025, India
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Sciences, UP Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalay Evum Go-Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura, Uttar Pradesh 281001, India
Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu P.O.BOX 1524, Nepal
Public Health and Infection Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Pereira 660001, Colombia
Grupo de Investigacion Biomedicina, Faculty of Medicine, Fundacion Universitaria Autonoma de las Americas, Pereira, Risaralda 660003, Colombia
Laboratory Division, Indian Council of Medical Research -National Institute of Epidemiology, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Ayapakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600077, India
Amity Institute of Virology and Immunology, J-3 Block, Amity University, Sector-125, Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201303, India
Division of Veterinary Biotechnology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh 243122, India
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 519;
Received: 22 May 2020 / Revised: 19 June 2020 / Accepted: 25 June 2020 / Published: 28 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection SARS-CoV Infections)
The technology-driven world of the 21st century is currently confronted with a major threat to humankind, represented by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome, coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of now, COVID-19 has affected more than 6 million confirmed cases and took 0.39 million human lives. SARS-CoV-2 spreads much faster than its two ancestors, SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV), but has low fatality rates. Our analyses speculate that the efficient replication and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 might be due to the high-density basic amino acid residues, preferably positioned in close proximity at both the furin-like cleavage sites (S1/S2 and S2’) within the spike protein. Given the high genomic similarities of SARS-CoV-2 to bat SARS-like CoVs, it is likely that bats serve as a reservoir host for its progenitor. Women and children are less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, while the elderly and people with comorbidities are more prone to serious clinical outcomes, which may be associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and cytokine storm. The cohesive approach amongst researchers across the globe has delivered high-end viral diagnostics. However, home-based point-of-care diagnostics are still under development, which may prove transformative in current COVID-19 pandemic containment. Similarly, vaccines and therapeutics against COVID-19 are currently in the pipeline for clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the noteworthy advancements, focusing on the etiological viral agent, comparative genomic analysis, population susceptibility, disease epidemiology and diagnosis, animal reservoirs, laboratory animal models, disease transmission, therapeutics, vaccine challenges, and disease mitigation measures. View Full-Text
Keywords: Coronavirus; pandemic; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; pathobiology; diagnosis; vaccines; therapeutics Coronavirus; pandemic; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; pathobiology; diagnosis; vaccines; therapeutics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Malik, Y.S.; Kumar, N.; Sircar, S.; Kaushik, R.; Bhat, S.; Dhama, K.; Gupta, P.; Goyal, K.; Singh, M.P.; Ghoshal, U.; El Zowalaty, M.E.; O. R, V.; Yatoo, M.I.; Tiwari, R.; Pathak, M.; Patel, S.K.; Sah, R.; Rodriguez-Morales, A.J.; Ganesh, B.; Kumar, P.; Singh, R.K. Coronavirus Disease Pandemic (COVID-19): Challenges and a Global Perspective. Pathogens 2020, 9, 519.

AMA Style

Malik YS, Kumar N, Sircar S, Kaushik R, Bhat S, Dhama K, Gupta P, Goyal K, Singh MP, Ghoshal U, El Zowalaty ME, O. R V, Yatoo MI, Tiwari R, Pathak M, Patel SK, Sah R, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Ganesh B, Kumar P, Singh RK. Coronavirus Disease Pandemic (COVID-19): Challenges and a Global Perspective. Pathogens. 2020; 9(7):519.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Malik, Yashpal Singh, Naveen Kumar, Shubhankar Sircar, Rahul Kaushik, Sudipta Bhat, Kuldeep Dhama, Parakriti Gupta, Kapil Goyal, Mini P Singh, Ujjala Ghoshal, Mohamed E. El Zowalaty, VinodhKumar O. R, Mohd Iqbal Yatoo, Ruchi Tiwari, Mamta Pathak, Shailesh Kumar Patel, Ranjit Sah, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Balasubramanian Ganesh, Prashant Kumar, and Raj Kumar Singh. 2020. "Coronavirus Disease Pandemic (COVID-19): Challenges and a Global Perspective" Pathogens 9, no. 7: 519.

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