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Open AccessArticle

Zoonotic Abbreviata caucasica in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) from Senegal

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IRD, AP-HM, Microbes, Evolution, Phylogeny and Infection (MEPHI), IHU Méditerranée Infection, Aix Marseille Univ, 19-21, Bd Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France
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IHU Méditerranée Infection, 19-21, Bd Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France
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Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, 70010 Valenzano, Italy
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IRD, SSA, APHM, VITROME, IHU Méditerranée Infection, Aix-Marseille University, 19-21, Bd Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France
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VITROME, IRD 257, Campus International UCAD-IRD, Hann, Dakar, Senegal
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Jane Goodall Institute Spain and Senegal, Dindefelo Biological Station, Dindefelo, Kedougou, Senegal
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Department of Social Psychology and Quantitative Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, Passeig de la Vall d’Hebron 171, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070517
Received: 19 April 2020 / Revised: 22 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 27 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
Abbreviata caucasica (syn. Physaloptera mordens) has been reported in human and various non-human primates including great apes. The identification of this nematode is seldom performed and relies on egg characterization at the coproscopy, in the absence of any molecular tool. Following the recovery of two adult females of A. caucasica from the feces of wild Senegalese chimpanzees, morphometric characteristics were reported and new data on the width of the esophagus (0.268–0.287 mm) and on the cuticle structure (0.70–0.122 mm) were provided. The molecular characterization of a set of mitochondrial (cox1, 16S rRNA, 12S rRNA) and nuclear (18S rRNA and ITS2) partial genes was performed. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates for the first time that A. caucasica is monophyletic with Physaloptera species. A novel molecular tool was developed for the routine diagnosis of A. caucasica and the surveillance of Nematoda infestations. An A. caucasica-specific qPCR targeting the 12S gene was assessed. The assay was able to detect up to 1.13 × 10−3 eggs/g of fecal matter irrespective of its consistency, with an efficiency of 101.8% and a perfect adjustment (R2 = 0.99). The infection rate by A. caucasica in the chimpanzee fecal samples was 52.08%. Only 6.19% of the environmental samples were positive for nematode DNA and any for A. caucasica. Our findings indicate the need for further studies to clarify the epidemiology, circulation, life cycle, and possible pathological effects of this infestation using the molecular tool herein developed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Abbreviata caucasica; Physaloptera mordens; Pan troglodytes verus; wild chimpanzees; nematode; zoonosis; Senegal Abbreviata caucasica; Physaloptera mordens; Pan troglodytes verus; wild chimpanzees; nematode; zoonosis; Senegal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Laidoudi, Y.; Medkour, H.; Latrofa, M.S.; Davoust, B.; Diatta, G.; Sokhna, C.; Barciela, A.; Hernandez-Aguilar, R.A.; Raoult, D.; Otranto, D.; Mediannikov, O. Zoonotic Abbreviata caucasica in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) from Senegal. Pathogens 2020, 9, 517.

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