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Identification of Essential Oils Including Garlic Oil and Black Pepper Oil with High Activity against Babesia duncani

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
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Pathogens 2020, 9(6), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060466
Received: 24 May 2020 / Revised: 8 June 2020 / Accepted: 9 June 2020 / Published: 12 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detection and Characterization of Drug- Resistant Organisms)
Some evidence indicated that human babesiosis caused by Babesia duncani has spread widely in North America. However, current therapeutic regimens (atovaquone + azithromycin) for human babesiosis are suboptimal with frequent recrudescence and side effects, and furthermore, there is no specific treatment for human babesiosis caused by B. duncani. Here, we screened 97 essential oils and identified 10 essential oils (garlic, black pepper, tarragon, palo santo, coconut, pine, meditation, cajeput, moringa, and stress relief) at a low concentration (0.001%; v/v) that showed good inhibitory activity against B. duncani in the hamster red blood cell culture model. Among them, garlic oil and black pepper oil performed best, as well as their potential active ingredients diallyl disulfide (DADS) and β-caryophyllene (BCP), respectively. Interestingly, further subculture study indicated that B. duncani could relapse after treatment with current therapeutic drugs atovaquone or azithromycin even at high concentrations. In contrast, the combination of garlic oil or DADS and azithromycin showed eradication of B. duncani at low concentrations without regrowth. These results are encouraging and suggest that the garlic-derived sulfur compound DADS and β-caryophyllene (BCP) may be promising drug candidates for evaluation of their ability to cure persistent B. duncani infections in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: Babesia duncani; essential oil screen; garlic oil; black pepper oil; diallyl disulfide (DADS); β-caryophyllene (BCP) Babesia duncani; essential oil screen; garlic oil; black pepper oil; diallyl disulfide (DADS); β-caryophyllene (BCP)
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Zhang, Y.; Bai, C.; Shi, W.; Alvarez-Manzo, H.; Zhang, Y. Identification of Essential Oils Including Garlic Oil and Black Pepper Oil with High Activity against Babesia duncani. Pathogens 2020, 9, 466.

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