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The Relationship between Estrogen-Related Signaling and Human Papillomavirus Positive Cancers

1
School of Dentistry, Philips Institute for Oral Health Research, Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU), Richmond, VA 23298, USA
2
VCU Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU), Richmond, VA 23298, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(5), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050403
Received: 30 April 2020 / Revised: 19 May 2020 / Accepted: 20 May 2020 / Published: 22 May 2020
High risk-human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are known carcinogens. Numerous reports have linked the steroid hormone estrogen, and the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs), to HPV-related cancers, although the exact nature of the interactions remains to be fully elucidated. Here we will focus on estrogen signaling and describe both pro and potentially anti-cancer effects of this hormone in HPV-positive cancers. This review will summarize: (1) cell culture-related evidence, (2) animal model evidence, and (3) clinical evidence demonstrating an interaction between estrogen and HPV-positive cancers. This comprehensive review provides insights into the potential relationship between estrogen and HPV. We suggest that estrogen may provide a potential therapeutic for HPV-related cancers, however additional studies are necessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: human papillomavirus; cervical cancer; head and neck cancer; oropharyngeal cancer; estrogen; estrogen receptor human papillomavirus; cervical cancer; head and neck cancer; oropharyngeal cancer; estrogen; estrogen receptor
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James, C.D.; Morgan, I.M.; Bristol, M.L. The Relationship between Estrogen-Related Signaling and Human Papillomavirus Positive Cancers. Pathogens 2020, 9, 403.

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