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Open AccessArticle

Highly Efficient Vertical Transmission for Zika Virus in Aedes aegypti after Long Extrinsic Incubation Time

Department of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore
CNRS, IRD, MIVEGEC, Univ. Montpellier, 34394 Montpellier, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(5), 366;
Received: 21 April 2020 / Revised: 5 May 2020 / Accepted: 9 May 2020 / Published: 11 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Untargeted Alternative Routes of Arbovirus Transmission)
While the Zika virus (ZIKV) 2014–2017 pandemic has subsided, there remains active transmission. Apart from horizontal transmission to humans, the main vector Aedes aegypti can transmit the virus vertically from mother to offspring. Large variation in vertical transmission (VT) efficiency between studies indicates the influence of parameters, which remain to be characterized. To determine the roles of extrinsic incubation time and gonotrophic cycle, we deployed an experimental design that quantifies ZIKV in individual progeny and larvae. We observed an early infection of ovaries that exponentially progressed. We quantified VT rate, filial infection rate, and viral load per infected larvae at 10 days post oral infection (d.p.i.) on the second gonotrophic cycle and at 17 d.p.i. on the second and third gonotrophic cycle. As compared to previous reports that studied pooled samples, we detected a relatively high VT efficiency from 1.79% at 10 d.p.i. and second gonotrophic cycle to 66% at 17 d.p.i. and second gonotrophic cycle. At 17 d.p.i., viral load largely varied and averaged around 800 genomic RNA (gRNA) copies. Longer incubation time and fewer gonotrophic cycles promoted VT. These results shed light on the mechanism of VT, how environmental conditions favor VT, and whether VT can maintain ZIKV circulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Zika virus; Aedes aegypti; vertical transmission Zika virus; Aedes aegypti; vertical transmission
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Manuel, M.; Missé, D.; Pompon, J. Highly Efficient Vertical Transmission for Zika Virus in Aedes aegypti after Long Extrinsic Incubation Time. Pathogens 2020, 9, 366.

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