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Article

A Retrospective Assessment of Temperature Trends in Northern Europe Reveals a Deep Impact on the Life Cycle of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae)

Department of Animal Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zaragoza, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(5), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050345
Received: 20 March 2020 / Revised: 29 April 2020 / Accepted: 29 April 2020 / Published: 1 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection New Frontiers in Tick Research)
This study modelled the changes in the development processes of the health-threatening tick Ixodes ricinus in Northern Europe as driven by the trends of temperature (1950–2018). We used the ECA&D dataset to calculate the annual accumulated temperature to obtain the development rates of the oviposition, incubation, larva–nymph, and nymph–adult molts. Annual values were used to ascertain the trend in development rates of each stage. The ecological classification of Northern Europe (LANMAP2) was used to summarize results. The temperature in 1950–2018 clearly increased in the target territory. The development rates of every tested life cycle process were faster along the time series. Faster oviposition and incubation rates resulted in central Sweden, Baltic countries, and parts of Finland. Faster molting rates were observed in the same territories and in large areas of Western Norway. The trend of temperature in the period 1950–2018 shows a consistent inflection point around 1990, demonstrating that the increased annual accumulated temperature has a deeper impact on the life cycle of I. ricinus since approximately 1990. Faster development rates could be part of the processes driving the reported spread of the tick in the target area and should be considered as a serious threat to human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ixodes ricinus; trends of temperature; impact; life cycle; Northern Europe Ixodes ricinus; trends of temperature; impact; life cycle; Northern Europe
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MDPI and ACS Style

Estrada-Peña, A.; Fernández-Ruiz, N. A Retrospective Assessment of Temperature Trends in Northern Europe Reveals a Deep Impact on the Life Cycle of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae). Pathogens 2020, 9, 345. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050345

AMA Style

Estrada-Peña A, Fernández-Ruiz N. A Retrospective Assessment of Temperature Trends in Northern Europe Reveals a Deep Impact on the Life Cycle of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae). Pathogens. 2020; 9(5):345. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050345

Chicago/Turabian Style

Estrada-Peña, Agustin; Fernández-Ruiz, Natalia. 2020. "A Retrospective Assessment of Temperature Trends in Northern Europe Reveals a Deep Impact on the Life Cycle of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae)" Pathogens 9, no. 5: 345. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050345

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