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Open AccessArticle

Bovine Papillomavirus Type 2 Infection Associated with Papillomatosis of the Amniotic Membrane in Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

1
Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria e Produzioni Animali, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, 80137 Napoli, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, 80136 Napoli, Italy
3
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, 80055 Portici (NA), Italy
4
Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North 4410, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040262
Received: 19 March 2020 / Revised: 1 April 2020 / Accepted: 2 April 2020 / Published: 4 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bovine Papillomavirus Infection)
Multiple papillomatous nodules were observed scattered over the amniotic membrane in six water buffaloes that had recently aborted. Grossly, some of the nodules had multiple villous projections while others appeared as single prominent conical or cylindrical horns. Histology revealed folded hyperplastic and hyperkeratotic epithelium supported by a narrow fibro-vascular stalk. Using PCR, sequences of the bovine Deltapapillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) E5 gene were amplified from the amniotic papillomas. Furthermore, expression of the E5 gene was detected using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Western blotting revealed BPV-2 E5 oncoprotein as well as L1 protein, suggesting both abortive and productive infection. Additionally, a functional complex composed of BPV-2 E5 oncoprotein and the phosphorylated PDGFβR was detected, which is consistent with the activation of PDGFβR by the interaction with BPV-2 E5 oncoprotein. These results demonstrate that BPV-2 can infect the amnion of water buffaloes and suggest that this infection may cause proliferation of the epithelial cells of the amnion. While the precise pathogenesis in uncertain, it is possible that BPV-2 infection of stratified squamous epithelial cells within squamous metaplasia foci and/or amniotic plaques could lead to papilloma formation. Papillomavirus-associated amniotic papillomas have not previously been reported in any species, including humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: amnion; amniotic plaques; bovine papillomavirus type 2; E5 oncoprotein; papilloma; squamous metaplasia; placenta infection; water buffalo amnion; amniotic plaques; bovine papillomavirus type 2; E5 oncoprotein; papilloma; squamous metaplasia; placenta infection; water buffalo
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Russo, V.; Roperto, F.; De Biase, D.; Cerino, P.; Urraro, C.; Munday, J.S.; Roperto, S. Bovine Papillomavirus Type 2 Infection Associated with Papillomatosis of the Amniotic Membrane in Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Pathogens 2020, 9, 262.

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