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Human Metapneumovirus: Etiological Agent of Severe Acute Respiratory Infections in Hospitalized and Deceased Patients with a Negative Diagnosis of Influenza
Open AccessOpinion

Human Metapneumovirus: A Largely Unrecognized Threat to Human Health

Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(2), 109;
Received: 26 November 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2020 / Accepted: 11 February 2020 / Published: 13 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Metapneumovirus Infection)
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infects most children by five years of age. The virus can cause both upper and lower respiratory tract disease and can be life threatening. High-risk populations include young children who are exposed to virus for the first time and the elderly. Currently, there is no standard treatment nor licensed vaccine for HMPV, although several attractive vaccine candidates have been developed for pre-clinical studies. A raised awareness of the impact of HMPV on public health is needed to drive research, complete vaccine development, and thereby prevent significant virus-associated morbidities and mortalities worldwide.
Keywords: respiratory virus infection; Sendai virus; vaccine development respiratory virus infection; Sendai virus; vaccine development
MDPI and ACS Style

Russell, C.J.; Penkert, R.R.; Kim, S.; Hurwitz, J.L. Human Metapneumovirus: A Largely Unrecognized Threat to Human Health. Pathogens 2020, 9, 109.

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