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Article

Imidocarb Dipropionate Lacks Efficacy against Theileria haneyi and Fails to Consistently Clear Theileria equi in Horses Co-Infected with T. haneyi

1
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Program in Vector-borne Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
2
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 810253, Nigeria
3
CureVac AG, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
4
Animal Disease Research Unit, USDA—ARS, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121035
Received: 12 November 2020 / Revised: 5 December 2020 / Accepted: 8 December 2020 / Published: 10 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Vector-Borne Diseases)
Control of Theileria equi, the primary cause of equine theileriosis, is largely reliant on acaracide use and chemosterilization with imidocarb dipropionate (ID). However, it is currently unknown if ID is effective against Theileria haneyi, the recently identified second causative agent of equine theileriosis, or if the drug maintains effectiveness against T. equi in the presence of T. haneyi co-infection. The purpose of this study was to address these questions using ID treatment of the following three groups of horses: (1) five T. haneyi infected horses; (2) three T. haneyi-T. equi infected horses; and (3) three T. equi-T. haneyi infected horses. Clearance was first evaluated using nPCR for each Theileria sp. on peripheral blood samples. ID failed to clear T. haneyi in all three groups of horses, and failed to clear T. equi in two of three horses in group two. For definitive confirmation of infection status, horses in groups two and three underwent splenectomy post-treatment. The T. equi-nPCR-positive horses in group two developed severe clinical signs and were euthanized. Remaining horses exhibited moderate signs consistent with T. haneyi. Our results demonstrate that ID therapy lacks efficacy against T. haneyi, and T. haneyi-T. equi co-infection may interfere with ID clearance of T. equi. View Full-Text
Keywords: equine theileriosis; Theileria haneyi; treatment; imidocarb diproprionate equine theileriosis; Theileria haneyi; treatment; imidocarb diproprionate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sears, K.; Knowles, D.; Dinkel, K.; Mshelia, P.W.; Onzere, C.; Silva, M.; Fry, L. Imidocarb Dipropionate Lacks Efficacy against Theileria haneyi and Fails to Consistently Clear Theileria equi in Horses Co-Infected with T. haneyi. Pathogens 2020, 9, 1035. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121035

AMA Style

Sears K, Knowles D, Dinkel K, Mshelia PW, Onzere C, Silva M, Fry L. Imidocarb Dipropionate Lacks Efficacy against Theileria haneyi and Fails to Consistently Clear Theileria equi in Horses Co-Infected with T. haneyi. Pathogens. 2020; 9(12):1035. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121035

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sears, Kelly, Donald Knowles, Kelcey Dinkel, Philip W. Mshelia, Cynthia Onzere, Marta Silva, and Lindsay Fry. 2020. "Imidocarb Dipropionate Lacks Efficacy against Theileria haneyi and Fails to Consistently Clear Theileria equi in Horses Co-Infected with T. haneyi" Pathogens 9, no. 12: 1035. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121035

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