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Article

Clinical Symptoms of Arboviruses in Mexico

1
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107, USA
2
Department of Urban Affairs at the School of Architecture, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, San Nicolás de los Garza 66455, Nuevo Léon, Mexico
3
Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences/DIFUS, University of Sonora, Hermosillo 83000, Sonora, Mexico
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Department of Health Sciences, Center for Biodefense and Global Infectious Diseases, Colima 28078, Mexico
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School of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine BT52 1SA, UK
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Department of Biochemistry, Naogaon Medical College, Naogaon 6500, Bangladesh
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Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence-Based Practice, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
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Entomology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, General Escobedo 66050, Nuevo Léon, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(11), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110964
Received: 18 September 2020 / Revised: 11 November 2020 / Accepted: 16 November 2020 / Published: 19 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Human Pathogens)
Arboviruses such as Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DENV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) have emerged as a significant public health concern in Mexico. The existing literature lacks evidence regarding the dispersion of arboviruses, thereby limiting public health policy’s ability to integrate the diagnosis, management, and prevention. This study seeks to reveal the clinical symptoms of CHIK, DENV, and ZIKV by age group, region, sex, and time across Mexico. The confirmed cases of CHIKV, DENV, and ZIKV were compiled from January 2012 to March 2020. Demographic characteristics analyzed significant clinical symptoms of confirmed cases. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the association between clinical symptoms and geographical regions. Females and individuals aged 15 and older had higher rates of reported significant symptoms across all three arboviruses. DENV showed a temporal variation of symptoms by regions 3 and 5, whereas ZIKV presented temporal variables in regions 2 and 4. This study revealed unique and overlapping symptoms between CHIKV, DENV, and ZIKV. However, the differentiation of CHIKV, DENV, and ZIKV is difficult, and diagnostic facilities are not available in rural areas. There is a need for adequately trained healthcare staff alongside well-equipped lab facilities, including hematological tests and imaging facilities. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chikungunya; Dengue; epidemiology; public health; Zika virus Chikungunya; Dengue; epidemiology; public health; Zika virus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ananth, S.; Shrestha, N.; Treviño C., J.A.; Nguyen, U.-s.; Haque, U.; Angulo-Molina, A.; Lopez-Lemus, U.A.; Lubinda, J.; Sharif, R.M.; Zaki, R.A.; Sánchez Casas, R.M.; Cervantes, D.; Nandy, R. Clinical Symptoms of Arboviruses in Mexico. Pathogens 2020, 9, 964. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110964

AMA Style

Ananth S, Shrestha N, Treviño C. JA, Nguyen U-s, Haque U, Angulo-Molina A, Lopez-Lemus UA, Lubinda J, Sharif RM, Zaki RA, Sánchez Casas RM, Cervantes D, Nandy R. Clinical Symptoms of Arboviruses in Mexico. Pathogens. 2020; 9(11):964. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110964

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ananth, Sushmitha, Nistha Shrestha, Jesús A. Treviño C., Uyen-sa Nguyen, Ubydul Haque, Aracely Angulo-Molina, Uriel A. Lopez-Lemus, Jailos Lubinda, Rashed Md. Sharif, Rafdzah Ahmad Zaki, Rosa María Sánchez Casas, Diana Cervantes, and Rajesh Nandy. 2020. "Clinical Symptoms of Arboviruses in Mexico" Pathogens 9, no. 11: 964. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110964

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