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Article

Epidemiology of Noble Pen Shell (Pinna nobilis L. 1758) Mass Mortality Events in Adriatic Sea Is Characterised with Rapid Spreading and Acute Disease Progression

1
Department of Ecology, Agronomy and Aquaculture, University of Zadar, 23 000 Zadar, Croatia
2
Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, 80126 Naples, Italy
3
Chair for Fish Diseases and Fisheries Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, 80539 Munich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(10), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9100776
Received: 22 July 2020 / Revised: 20 September 2020 / Accepted: 21 September 2020 / Published: 23 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spontaneous Diseases of Mollusks)
From May to October 2019, multiple mass mortality events (MMEs) of Pinna nobilis were observed along Croatian coastline starting from the south-east and rapidly progressing in north-western direction. Time dynamics of the MMEs closely followed general speed and direction patterns of surface sea-currents, advancing approximately 350 km in less than 3 months. Surveillance, clinical evaluation, and sample collection were performed on multiple sites with various degrees of mortality rates. Moribund P. nobilis individuals were collected and subjected to pathological, molecular, and microscopical investigation. Affected animals were positive for Mycobacterium in 70% of the individuals, and Haplosporidium pinnae was present in 58% of the cases. Observed pathological lesions were most severe where concurrent presence of both pathogens was confirmed (in 45.8% of moribund individuals). Moderate to strong lesions were observed in animals positive for Mycobacterium only (25% of cases), and lesions were absent or minor to moderate when only H. pinnae was confirmed (16% of cases). Considering the rapid and severe spread of the MMEs, the areas less exposed to major sea currents appeared to be at lower risk of pathogen transmission. Surveillance activities along the Croatian coastline identified several P. nobilis populations in such “lower risk” areas without apparent mortality or clinical symptoms. Such areas are of particular interest as source of potentially healthy individuals to support active recovery actions. View Full-Text
Keywords: MMEs; Mycobacterium; Haplosporidium pinnae; epidemiology MMEs; Mycobacterium; Haplosporidium pinnae; epidemiology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Šarić, T.; Župan, I.; Aceto, S.; Villari, G.; Palić, D.; De Vico, G.; Carella, F. Epidemiology of Noble Pen Shell (Pinna nobilis L. 1758) Mass Mortality Events in Adriatic Sea Is Characterised with Rapid Spreading and Acute Disease Progression. Pathogens 2020, 9, 776. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9100776

AMA Style

Šarić T, Župan I, Aceto S, Villari G, Palić D, De Vico G, Carella F. Epidemiology of Noble Pen Shell (Pinna nobilis L. 1758) Mass Mortality Events in Adriatic Sea Is Characterised with Rapid Spreading and Acute Disease Progression. Pathogens. 2020; 9(10):776. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9100776

Chicago/Turabian Style

Šarić, Tomislav, Ivan Župan, Serena Aceto, Grazia Villari, Dušan Palić, Gionata De Vico, and Francesca Carella. 2020. "Epidemiology of Noble Pen Shell (Pinna nobilis L. 1758) Mass Mortality Events in Adriatic Sea Is Characterised with Rapid Spreading and Acute Disease Progression" Pathogens 9, no. 10: 776. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9100776

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