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Open AccessArticle

Occurrence and Characterization of Salmonella Isolated from Table Egg Layer Farming Environments in Western Australia and Insights into Biosecurity and Egg Handling Practices

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School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, Murdoch University, Perth 6150, Australia
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Veterinary Medicine Department, College of Food and Agriculture, United Arab Emirates University (UAEU), Al Ain P.O. Box 1555, UAE
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Department of Health Western Australia, 189 Royal Street, East Perth District, Perth 6004, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9010056
Received: 1 October 2019 / Revised: 6 January 2020 / Accepted: 10 January 2020 / Published: 13 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Waterborne/Foodborne/Airborne Pathogens)
The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of Salmonella in commercial layer farming environments of 26 flocks belonging to seven egg businesses (free-range and barn-laid) in Western Australia (WA). Between November 2017 and June 2018, a total of 265 environmental samples of dust, feed, water, pooled feces, and boot swabs were tested for detection of Salmonella according to standard culture-based methods. Isolates were assayed for serovar and subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Salmonella spp. were recovered from 35% (93/265) of all tested samples. Dust (53.8%, 28/52) and pooled fecal (54.5%, 18/33) samples provided the highest Salmonella recovery rates. Nine different Salmonella serovars were characterized across the positive (n = 93) environmental samples, of which S. Typhimurium (60/93, 64.5%) and S. Infantis (21/93, 22.5%) were the most prevalent. MLST revealed that all S. Typhimurium isolates were of sequence type ST-19. Microbiological screening of Salmonella was not routinely practiced in any of the surveyed egg businesses. Some of the egg businesses exhibited variable levels of compliance with basic biosecurity measures as well as high-risk egg handling practices. Egg businesses in WA should be encouraged to adopt a voluntary program of environmental sampling and verification testing for Salmonella. Such voluntary programs will aid in supporting solutions for the management of this pathogen in the human food chain. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella; eggs; Western Australia; layers; biosecurity Salmonella; eggs; Western Australia; layers; biosecurity
MDPI and ACS Style

Sodagari, H.R.; Habib, I.; Whiddon, S.; Wang, P.; Mohammed, A.B.; Robertson, I.; Goodchild, S. Occurrence and Characterization of Salmonella Isolated from Table Egg Layer Farming Environments in Western Australia and Insights into Biosecurity and Egg Handling Practices. Pathogens 2020, 9, 56.

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