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Currently Available Monitoring and Surveillance Systems for Taenia spp., Echinococcus spp., Schistosoma spp., and Soil-Transmitted Helminths at the Control/Elimination Stage: A Systematic Review

Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke B-9820, Belgium
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Pathogens 2020, 9(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9010047
Received: 6 December 2019 / Revised: 2 January 2020 / Accepted: 2 January 2020 / Published: 6 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tackling Foodborne Parasitic Infections)
An increasing global focus on neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has resulted in the set up of numerous control and elimination activities worldwide. This is partly true for Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis, the most important foodborne parasitic infection. Despite substantial progress, adequate monitoring and surveillance (M&S) are required to sustain a status of control/elimination. This is often lacking, especially for T. solium. Therefore, the objective was to conduct a systematic literature review of the currently available M&S systems at the control/elimination stage of the four top-ranked helminth NTDs. Specifically, Taenia spp., Echinococcus spp., Schistosoma spp., and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) were considered to determine if there are any similarities between their M&S systems and whether certain approaches can be adopted from each other. The systematic review demonstrated that rigorous M&S systems have been designed for the control/elimination stage of both STHs and schistosomiasis, particularly in China. On the other hand, a concept of M&S for Taenia spp. and Echinococcus spp. has not been fully developed yet, due to a lack of epidemiological data and the fact that many endemic countries are far away from reaching control/elimination. Moreover, accurate diagnostic tools for all four diseases are still imperfect, which complicates proper M&S. Finally, there is an urgent need to develop and harmonize/standardize M&S activities in order to reliably determine and compare the epidemiological situation worldwide. View Full-Text
Keywords: neglected tropical diseases; monitoring and surveillance; helminth zoonoses; Taenia spp.; Echinococcus spp.; Schistosoma spp.; soil-transmitted helminths neglected tropical diseases; monitoring and surveillance; helminth zoonoses; Taenia spp.; Echinococcus spp.; Schistosoma spp.; soil-transmitted helminths
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Saelens, G.; Gabriël, S. Currently Available Monitoring and Surveillance Systems for Taenia spp., Echinococcus spp., Schistosoma spp., and Soil-Transmitted Helminths at the Control/Elimination Stage: A Systematic Review. Pathogens 2020, 9, 47.

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