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Open AccessArticle

Status and Epidemiology of Maize Lethal Necrotic Disease in Northern Tanzania

1
Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute (TARI) Tengeru Sub Center, P.O. Box 1253, Arusha, Tanzania
2
Biosciences Eastern and Central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI) Hub, P.O. Box 30709-00100, Nairobi, Kenya
3
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, NC 72701, USA
4
Department of Applied Economics, International Science, Technology Practice and Policy (InSTEPP), 1994 Buford Ave.248E Ruttan Hall Saint Paul, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55108-6038, USA
5
Department of Sustainable Agriculture, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Management, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447, Arusha, Tanzania
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Currently at the Institute of Biotechnology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Currently at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg, Germany.
Pathogens 2020, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9010004
Received: 15 November 2019 / Revised: 8 December 2019 / Accepted: 16 December 2019 / Published: 18 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Pathogens)
Sustainable control of plant diseases requires a good understanding of the epidemiological aspects such as the biology of the causal pathogens. In the current study, we used RT-PCR and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) to contribute to the characterization of maize lethal necrotic (MLN) viruses and to identify other possible viruses that could represent a future threat in maize production in Tanzania. RT-PCR screening for Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMV) detected the virus in the majority (97%) of the samples (n = 223). Analysis of a subset (n = 48) of the samples using NGS-Illumina Miseq detected MCMV and Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV) at a co-infection of 62%. The analysis further detected Maize streak virus with an 8% incidence in samples where MCMV and SCMV were also detected. In addition, signatures of Maize dwarf mosaic virus, Sorghum mosaic virus, Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV and Barley yellow dwarf virus were detected with low coverage. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral coat protein showed that isolates of MCMV and SCMV were similar to those previously reported in East Africa and Hebei, China. Besides characterization, we used farmers’ interviews and direct field observations to give insights into MLN status in different agro-ecological zones (AEZs) in Kilimanjaro, Mayara, and Arusha. Through the survey, we showed that the prevalence of MLN differed across regions (P = 0.0012) and villages (P < 0.0001) but not across AEZs (P > 0.05). The study shows changing MLN dynamics in Tanzania and emphasizes the need for regional scientists to utilize farmers’ awareness in managing the disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: Maize chlorotic mottle virus; next-generation sequencing; phylogenetic analysis; MLN prevalence; Sugarcane mosaic virus Maize chlorotic mottle virus; next-generation sequencing; phylogenetic analysis; MLN prevalence; Sugarcane mosaic virus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kiruwa, F.H.; Mutiga, S.; Njuguna, J.; Machuka, E.; Senay, S.; Feyissa, T.; Ndakidemi, P.A.; Stomeo, F. Status and Epidemiology of Maize Lethal Necrotic Disease in Northern Tanzania. Pathogens 2020, 9, 4. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9010004

AMA Style

Kiruwa FH, Mutiga S, Njuguna J, Machuka E, Senay S, Feyissa T, Ndakidemi PA, Stomeo F. Status and Epidemiology of Maize Lethal Necrotic Disease in Northern Tanzania. Pathogens. 2020; 9(1):4. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9010004

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kiruwa, Fatma H.; Mutiga, Samuel; Njuguna, Joyce; Machuka, Eunice; Senay, Senait; Feyissa, Tileye; Ndakidemi, Patrick A.; Stomeo, Francesca. 2020. "Status and Epidemiology of Maize Lethal Necrotic Disease in Northern Tanzania" Pathogens 9, no. 1: 4. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9010004

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