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Prevalence, Pathogenicity, Virulence, Antibiotic Resistance, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Biofilm-Producing Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Different Ecological Niches in Egypt: Food, Humans, Animals, and Environment

1
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo 12211, Egypt
2
Water Quality Center, Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53233, USA
3
Department of Applied Sciences, North Umbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 2SU, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9010005
Received: 15 November 2019 / Revised: 7 December 2019 / Accepted: 9 December 2019 / Published: 18 December 2019
Serious outbreaks of foodborne disease have been caused by Listeria monocytogenes found in retail delicatessens and the severity of disease is significant, with high hospitalization and mortality rates. Little is understood about the formidable public health threat of L. monocytogenes in all four niches, humans, animals, food, and environment, in Egypt. This study analyzed the presence of L. monocytogenes collected from the four environmental niches and bioinformatics analysis was implemented to analyze and compare the data. PCR was used to detect virulence genes encoded by pathogenicity island (LIPI-1). prfA amino acid substation that causes constitutive expression of virulence was common in 77.7% of isolates. BLAST analysis did not match other isolates in the NCBI database, suggesting this may be a characteristic of the region associated with these isolates. A second group included the NH1 isolate originating in China, and BLAST analysis showed this prfA allele was shared with isolates from other global locations, such as Europe and North America. Identification of possible links and transmission pathways between the four niches helps to decrease the risk of disease in humans, to take more specific control measures in the context of disease prevention, to limit economic losses associated with food recalls, and highlights the need for treatment options. View Full-Text
Keywords: L. monocytogenes; humans; animals; food; antimicrobial and virulence genes; bioinformatics analysis; prfA phylogenetic analysis L. monocytogenes; humans; animals; food; antimicrobial and virulence genes; bioinformatics analysis; prfA phylogenetic analysis
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Osman, K.M.; Kappell, A.D.; Fox, E.M.; Orabi, A.; Samir, A. Prevalence, Pathogenicity, Virulence, Antibiotic Resistance, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Biofilm-Producing Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Different Ecological Niches in Egypt: Food, Humans, Animals, and Environment. Pathogens 2020, 9, 5.

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