Cyclophilins (CYPs), a highly-conserved family of proteins, belong to a subgroup of immunophilins. Ubiquitous in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, CYPs have peptidyl-prolyl cis–trans isomerase (PPIase) activity and have been implicated as virulence factors in plant pathogenesis by oomycetes. We identified 16 CYP orthogroups from 21 diverse oomycetes. Each species was found to encode 15 to 35 CYP genes. Three of these orthogroups contained proteins with signal peptides at the N-terminal end, suggesting a role in secretion. Multidomain analysis revealed five conserved motifs of the CYP domain of oomycetes shared with other eukaryotic PPIases. Expression analysis of CYP proteins in different asexual life stages of the hemibiotrophic Phytophthora infestans
and the biotrophic Plasmopara halstedii
demonstrated distinct expression profiles between life stages. In addition to providing detailed comparative information on the CYPs in multiple oomycetes, this study identified candidate CYP effectors that could be the foundation for future studies of virulence.
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