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Open AccessArticle

Clinical Course of Opportunistic Infections—Toxoplasmosis and Cytomegalovirus Infection in HIV-Infected Patients in Slovakia

1
Clinic of Infectology and Travel Medicine, Comenius University Bratislava, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital in Martin, Kollárova 2, 036 01 Martin, Slovakia
2
Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Comenius University Bratislava, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital in Martin, Kollárova 2, 036 01 Martin, Slovakia
3
Institute of Parasitology of Slovak Academy of Sciences, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Košice, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040219
Received: 16 September 2019 / Revised: 28 October 2019 / Accepted: 30 October 2019 / Published: 4 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Human Pathogens)
: The HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic has affected the health status of the population in many countries. Early symptomatic HIV infection includes persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL), which can be associated with opportunistic infections, e.g., toxoplasmosis and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. This study followed the occurrence of PGL, toxoplasmosis, and Cytomegalovirus infection in 32 HIV-positive patients and analyzed the clinical signs of disease in relation to the number of CD4 T lymphocytes. In monitored patients, the average number of CD4 T lymphocytes was 940.8 ± 396.7/µL of blood. Severe immunodeficiency was recorded in four persons, who also suffered from colitis and/or retinitis and pneumonitis. The number of CD4 T cells in patients with PGL was significantly lower than that in patients without lymphadenopathy. In 6 (18.8%) IgM and 11 (34.4%) IgG Toxoplasma gondii seropositive patients, the number of CD4 T lymphocytes was significantly lower than that in seronegative patients. The presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to Cytomegalovirus was recorded in all examined patients, and CMV infection clinically manifested in five persons. The occurrence of PGL, the higher viral load, and seropositivity to T. gondii were significantly related to decline in the CD4 T lymphocyte number. The clinical course of the diseases was influenced by the status of the patient’s immunodeficiency and suggests ongoing immunosuppression and possible reactivation of both infections in all patients.
Keywords: HIV/AIDS; persistent generalized lymphadenopathy; toxoplasmosis; Cytomegalovirus; immunodeficiency HIV/AIDS; persistent generalized lymphadenopathy; toxoplasmosis; Cytomegalovirus; immunodeficiency
MDPI and ACS Style

Šimeková, K.; Nováková, E.; Rosoľanka, R.; Masná, J.; Antolová, D. Clinical Course of Opportunistic Infections—Toxoplasmosis and Cytomegalovirus Infection in HIV-Infected Patients in Slovakia. Pathogens 2019, 8, 219.

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