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Open AccessArticle

Metagenomic Analysis of Infectious F-Specific RNA Bacteriophage Strains in Wastewater Treatment and Disinfection Processes

Innovative Materials and Resources Research Center, Public Works Research Institute, Ibaraki 305-8516, Japan
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Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040217
Received: 24 September 2019 / Revised: 15 October 2019 / Accepted: 2 November 2019 / Published: 3 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteric Viruses in Aquatic Environments)
F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPHs) can be used to indicate water contamination and the fate of viruses in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, the occurrence of FRNAPH strains in WWTPs is relatively unknown, whereas FRNAPH genotypes (GI–GIV) are well documented. This study investigated the diversity of infectious FRNAPH strains in wastewater treatment and disinfection processes using cell culture combined with next-generation sequencing (integrated culture–NGS (IC–NGS)). A total of 32 infectious strains belonging to FRNAPH GI (nine strains), GI-JS (two strains), GII (nine strains), GIII (seven strains), and GIV (five strains) were detected in wastewater samples. The strains of FRNAPH GI and GII exhibited greater resistance to wastewater treatment than those of GIII. The IC–NGS results in the disinfected samples successfully reflected the infectivity of FRNAPHs by evaluating the relationship between IC–NGS results and the integrated culture–reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction combined with the most probable number assay, which can detect infectious FRNAPH genotypes. The diversity of infectious FRNAPH strains in the disinfected samples indicates that certain strains are more resistant to chlorine (DL52, GI-JS; T72, GII) and ultraviolet (T72, GII) disinfection. It is possible that investigating these disinfectant-resistant strains could reveal effective mechanisms of viral disinfection.
Keywords: F-specific RNA bacteriophage strain; viral indicator; next-generation sequencing; infectivity; wastewater treatment; chlorination; ultraviolet disinfection F-specific RNA bacteriophage strain; viral indicator; next-generation sequencing; infectivity; wastewater treatment; chlorination; ultraviolet disinfection
MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, S.; Suwa, M.; Shigemura, H. Metagenomic Analysis of Infectious F-Specific RNA Bacteriophage Strains in Wastewater Treatment and Disinfection Processes. Pathogens 2019, 8, 217.

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