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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite and Benzalkonium Chloride on the Structural Parameters of the Biofilms Formed by Ten Salmonella enterica Serotypes

1
Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, Veterinary Faculty, University of León, E-24071 León, Spain
2
Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of León, E-24071 León, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(3), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8030154
Received: 7 July 2019 / Revised: 23 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 September 2019 / Published: 17 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Human Pathogens)
The influence of the strain on the ability of Salmonella enterica to form biofilms on polystyrene was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The effects of sodium hypochlorite with 10% active chlorine (SHY; 25,000, 50,000, or 100,000 ppm), and benzalkonium chloride (BZK; 1000, 5000, or 10,000 ppm) on twenty-four-hour-old biofilms was also determined. The biofilms of ten Salmonella enterica isolates from poultry (S. Agona, S. Anatum, S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Infantis, S. Kentucky, S. Thompson, S. Typhimurium, monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium 1,4,(5),12:i:-, and S. Virchow) were studied. Biofilms produced by S. Anatum, S. Hadar, S. Kentucky, and S. Typhimurium showed a trend to have the largest biovolume and the greatest surface coverage and thickness. The smallest biofilms (P < 0.01) in the observation field (14.2 × 103 µm2) were produced by S. Enteritidis and S. 1,4,(5),12:i:- (average 12.9 × 103 ± 9.3 × 103 µm3) compared to the rest of the serotypes (44.4 × 103 ± 24.7 × 103 µm3). Biovolume and surface coverage decreased after exposure for ten minutes to SHY at 50,000 or 100,000 ppm and to BZK at 5000 or 10,000 ppm. However, the lowest concentrations of disinfectants increased biovolume and surface coverage in biofilms of several strains (markedly so in the case of BZK). The results from this study suggest that the use of biocides at low concentrations could represent a public health risk. Further research studies under practical field conditions should be appropriate to confirm these findings. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella enterica; serotypes; biocides; biofilms; confocal laser scanning microscopy Salmonella enterica; serotypes; biocides; biofilms; confocal laser scanning microscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Capita, R.; Fernández-Pérez, S.; Buzón-Durán, L.; Alonso-Calleja, C. Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite and Benzalkonium Chloride on the Structural Parameters of the Biofilms Formed by Ten Salmonella enterica Serotypes. Pathogens 2019, 8, 154.

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