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Therapeutic Interventions for Countering Leishmaniasis and Chagas’s Disease: From Traditional Sources to Nanotechnological Systems

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Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra (FFUC), Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
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CEB – Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
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Faculty of Health Sciences, University Fernando Pessoa, Rua Carlos da Maia, 296, Paranhos, 4200-150 Porto, Portugal
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Laboratory of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine (LNMED), Institute of Technology and Research (ITP), Av. Murilo Dantas, 300, Aracaju 49010-390, Brazil
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University of Tiradentes (UNIT), Industrial Biotechnology Program, Av. Murilo Dantas 300, Aracaju 49032-490, Brazil
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Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
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Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IN2UB), University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
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Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
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Departamento de Biologia e Ambiente, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), P.O. Box 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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Centro de Investigação e de Tecnologias Agro-Ambientais e Biológicas (CITAB-UTAD), 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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Department of Endocrinology of Braga Hospital, Sete Fontes, 4710-243 São Victor, Braga, Portugal
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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana 124001, India
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8030119
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 29 July 2019 / Accepted: 31 July 2019 / Published: 1 August 2019
The incidence of neglected diseases in tropical countries, such as Leishmaniasis and Chagas’s disease, is attributed to a set of biological and ecological factors associated with the socioeconomic context of developing countries and with a significant burden to health care systems. Both Leishmaniasis and Chagas’s disease are caused by different protozoa and develop diverse symptoms, which depend on the specific species infecting man. Currently available drugs to treat these disorders have limited therapeutic outcomes, frequently due to microorganisms’ drug resistance. In recent years, significant efforts have been made towards the development of innovative drug delivery systems aiming to improve bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profiles of classical drug therapy. This paper discusses the key facts of Leishmaniasis and Chagas’s disease, the currently available pharmacological therapies and the new drug delivery systems for conventional drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Neglected diseases; drug delivery systems; antiprotozoal agents; Chagas’s disease; leishmaniasis Neglected diseases; drug delivery systems; antiprotozoal agents; Chagas’s disease; leishmaniasis
MDPI and ACS Style

Souto, E.B.; Dias-Ferreira, J.; Craveiro, S.A.; Severino, P.; Sanchez-Lopez, E.; Garcia, M.L.; Silva, A.M.; Souto, S.B.; Mahant, S. Therapeutic Interventions for Countering Leishmaniasis and Chagas’s Disease: From Traditional Sources to Nanotechnological Systems. Pathogens 2019, 8, 119.

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