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Pathogens 2019, 8(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8020051

A Retrospective Epidemiological Study of the Incidence and Risk Factors of Salmonellosis in Bahrain in Children During 2012–2016

1
Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Bahrain, Sakhir Campus, Sakhir 976, Bahrain
2
IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia 27100, Italy
3
Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Unit of Human and Clinical Nutrition, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The two authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Waterborne/Foodborne/Airborne Pathogens)
PDF [333 KB, uploaded 17 April 2019]

Abstract

Salmonellosis is one of the major public health concerns in Bahrain as it has increased rapidly during the past few years. This study aims to determine the prevalence of salmonellosis in children and the possible risk factors such as age, geographical area, nationality, gender, unsafe drinking water, infant born weight and gastrointestinal disease. The cases of salmonellosis in children reported by the Ministry of Health of Bahrain ranged from 21 to 26 per 100,000 population during the period 2012–2016. Salmonellosis cases were geographically concentrated in the capital and northern regions. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the number of salmonellosis cases between Bahrainis and non-Bahrainis based on region, and gender (p < 0.001). In the Bahraini cohort, there was an association between the increase of cases and the number of gastrointestinal disease-related deaths (p < 0.05). In addition, unsafe water (over the level of 2.14%) and low-birth weight (<3.100 g) were associated, but not statistically significant (p = 0.086 and p = 0.126, respectively) with the increase of salmonellosis cases. Despite the decline in the number of cases, the results of this study contribute to the understanding of the epidemiology of Salmonella in humans and this, in turn, will help develop and implement preventative measures.
Keywords: salmonellosis surveillance; Bahrain; children; pediatric; epidemiology; food- and water-borne pathogen; incidence rates salmonellosis surveillance; Bahrain; children; pediatric; epidemiology; food- and water-borne pathogen; incidence rates
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Perna, S.; Alaali, Z.; Alalwan, T.A.; Janahi, E.M.; Mustafa, S.; Rondanelli, M.; Thani, A.S.B. A Retrospective Epidemiological Study of the Incidence and Risk Factors of Salmonellosis in Bahrain in Children During 2012–2016. Pathogens 2019, 8, 51.

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